Adolescence Literature Review

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CHAPTER II Literature Review Adolescence has been regarded as the most difficult period and a strained stage of development (Hall, 1904; Freud, 1958). The upcoming researches however, do not support the notion (Colman,1978; Frydenberg, 1997; Petersen,1991; Seiffge- Krenke,1995). It is a fact that adolescence go through a very complex process of development and demands (Lee, Chan & Yik,1992). The focal theory of Colman (1978) says that adolescence is the peak stage of stressful situations. Children are the citizens of tomorrow. It is the responsibility of the government to look after their rights and provide them with the best environment (Miller, 2004). According to Hynsley- Green (2004), a child is always dependent on his adults. It is the…show more content…
The figure illustrates the interrelatedness of biological, psychological and social factors. Biological factors are by birth so they are shown in the center. However, the role of social and psychological factors begin playing their role immediately after birth. Each one is entrenched in the other two. The fourth factor included here is time that shows the aging process from early adolescence to late adolescence and the ongoing events during this period. He had contradicted the view of other psychologists who declared the adolescence period as a period of “storm and stress” as they are shifting their sexual attachments from parents to peers; rather he called it a shift from dependency to independency. A period of growing autonomy; independence in decision making; feeling confident in personal goals and forming standards of behavior. Hill believed that this new ability of the adolescent to become intimate with one another is basically related to sexuality. It starts with the more intense feelings of affection than the previous ones. This intimacy and sexual attraction then shift towards their friends of opposite…show more content…
His work was not known in the west until it was published in 1962. A socio cultural cognitive theory presented by him focuses on how cultural values, beliefs and skills of a social group are transferred from one generation to the other. According to him human beings actively construct their knowledge about the world through social interaction. He stressed upon the role of social and cultural interaction I cognitive development. He was of the view that the cultural inventions language and writing play a very important role in the development of memory, attention and reasoning. Children should interact with more knowledgeable individuals of the society in order to acquire new and acceptable social skills and behaviors (1962, 1978). Unlike Piaget (1954), Vygotsky was of the opinion that learning is a result of experiences rather than predetermined cognitive stages. Vygotsky emphasized on the social connections among people and their interaction in socio cultural context in which they interact in shared experiences (Crawford,

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