These standards are very effective than the WHO previous standards although some countries still use their own growth standards. The WHO 2006 growth standards include anthropometric indicators such as length/height for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height, BMI-for-age etc. The WHO provides growth charts and tables of percentiles and Z -scores, separately for girls and boys (See Annex-----). The WHO 2006 growth standards suggested about children's growth. According to the WHO, one of the major point of the new standards is that it presumed breastfeeding as a "biological norm" and the new standards can detecting, measuring, monitoring and evaluate both under-nutrition and obesity which is very related to public health in both developed and developing countries (WHO, 2006 ).
My project two assignment focuses on the physical disability Cerebral Palsy (CP). A condition that was first defined in 1860 by William Little. A person with cerebral palsy has difficulty controlling movement and posture and may have problems with walking, talking, eating and playing. 1 to 3 in 1,000 births in Ireland are diagnosed with the disability with both male and females affected. It is not a genetic condition and the prevalence of cerebral palsy is on the increase mainly due to the increase in survival of very pre-term babies.
A study by Addy et al 1999 showed the prevalence of recession to be higher on upper canine and first pre-molar teeth and lower canine, first premolar and incisor teeth, in a group of 92 subjects with a mean age of 35 years.13 Some studies show that the prevalence of gingival recession is higher on the left side of the jaw.14 Higher levels of recession have been found in males than females and in Afrocarribeans and African-american than White Caucasians and other racial or ethnic groups.15 Recession is also found in patients with good oral hygiene as well as in patients with poor oral hygiene. In patients with good oral hygiene, recession is located commonly on buccal surfaces and in those with poor oral hygiene other tooth surfaces are also affected.16,17 Studies also show a correlation between calculus and gingival recession. One such study by Van der Weijden et al 1998 shows a higher prevalence of recession on lingual surfaces of lower anterior teeth in the age group of 20-34 years.18 Habits such as lip and tongue piercings are associated with increased prevalence of recession in mandibular anterior teeth.19 In patients with periodontitis attachment loss, bone loss and gingival recession is located mainly interdentally. It has been estimated that approximately 60%
In some cases, it has been observed that women in their mid to late thirties hit menopause much earlier than others. While, others don’t experience menopause until their mid to late fifties. The majority of women experience the change in their late forties and early fifties, with as many as ten to fifteen years of premenopausal symptoms. Some women have very few symptoms associated with menopause. A few feel better physically than they did in their early life twenties or thirties.
However, there are objections to this theory. In some cases, individuals are able to recall perfectly information that was not used extensively. Musicians, for example, can play pieces that they haven not heard or practiced for years. Furthermore, this theory's prediction, that the longer the interval of disuse between learning and recall, the less should be recalled, is being contradicted the study of Bahrick, Hall, and Berger (1996), cited in Passer, et al.(2009). The study reveals that individuals who studied Spanish in high school typically display better knowledge of the language at 15 years since the completion of the Spanish course than at 3, 5 or 10 years since completion.
Fathers, Unintended Becoming a father unintentionally is not all that uncommon. According to an analysis from the Guttmacher Institute, “Exploring U.S. Men’s Birth Intentions,” about four out of ten births among men are unintended. Roughly, two-thirds of those births were reported by the dads as mistimed while about one-third were unwanted. Keep in mind that those researchers equated an unplanned birth with an unintended pregnancy; although, there could be variations on that pregnancy to birth outcome, i.e., when a once wanted pregnancy ends up as an as an unwanted birth and vice versa. Working with data from the National Survey on Family Growth, the researchers found that unintended births are more common among younger men and men with lower levels of education than among older and more educated men, respectively.
ADIPOCYTE TURNOVER Adipose tissues expand via three mechanisms: increase in the size of pre-existing adipocytes (hypertrophy), formation of small new adipocytes (hyperplasia), or by both mechanisms. According to Spalding et al. (2008), about 10% of adipose cells are renewed per year at all adult ages and body weights but without any significant increase in the overall number of adipocytes. Studies have shown that during childhood or adolescence there could be an increase in the number of adipocytes but that this number remains fairly constant in adults regardless of the weight and gender of the individual (Arner et al., 2010). This is to say that there seem to be no net loss of adipocytes in the body of a human, the overall number of adipocytes
“The most recent estimates suggest that between 200,000 and 300,000 youths under the age of 18 reach adult court each year through this mechanism alone,” (Chambliss 135). This is showing that there is a large group of kids that are being tried as adults by the adult court. Therefore, they must have some reasons. One major reason is that the safety of the society should be important than the benefits a child can receive in juvenile courts (Youthful 1). Second the rate of reoffending is lower if placed in an adult court and prison then if tried as an child .
“In 2010, researchers found that kids who logged more than two hours a day in front of a computer or TV screen had a higher chance of psychological difficulties on a standard questionnaire”. (Pandika) A study in Denmark found that “each additional hour/day spent watching television or screen viewing in adolescence was associated with…greater odds of prevalent depression in young adulthood.” (“The Impact of Media“) While another study in Canada revealed “screen time may represent a rest of a factor or marker of anxiety and depression adolescents.” (“The Impact of Media”). While there may be some people who are not convinced that Internet gaming disorder is a mental disorder, hundreds of studies show the connection between screen time and increases in depression, anxiety and aggression (Kardaras). There does not need to be an addiction for these psychological adverse effects to
Source 4: Name: Alexandra Sifferlin Article: Why Girls brains mature faster than boys brains Posed: 19th of December (2013) Place: Newcastle University, UK Valid, because information is taken on patients of ages between 4-40 years of both genders. Unreliable, the tests taken aren’t shown as proof that the tests did
New data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concludes that with a 30 percent increase in the past two years, 1 in 68 U.S. children have been diagnosed with ASD concluding that early intervention can greatly improve a child’s long-term development and social behaviors (Autism 2014). There are several factors that may contribute to the rising prevalence rate of ASD. Like other disabilities, the occurrence rate of ASD for boys is five times higher than it is for girls. There could be several reasons for this disparity (Hallahan, Kauffman, Pullen, 2015, pp. 211).
It is important to note that many patients do not show many signs and do not become aware of their disorder until they are in their third or fourth decade of life. There have been research studies that show that males have a tendency to have an earlier onset or the arthritic symptoms than females do, the difference in timing is unclear but may be due to the fact that males have a tendency to do more laboring work throughout their lifespan than women do in most
In the United States, Latinos adolescence have lower alcohol consumption rates compared to other minority groups. Alcohol consumption among young Latino adults has been associates with education, income, acculturation, family factors, income and peer-oriented activities. (Turner & Gil, 2002). Latino adolescence are significantly more prone to report binge alcoholism in the previous two weeks in the eighth grade than either White or African American youth, and are somewhat more inclined to do as such in the tenth grade. Latino adolescence are more probable than both African American and White youth adolescence to have consumer alcohol before operating a vehicle or have ridden with a driver who has consumer alcohol.
Each year, approximately one in every five Australians will experience a mental illness. The percentage of people being diagnosed with mental illness is higher amongst younger people, with the frequency decreasing with age. 26% of 18-24 year olds have experienced a mental disorder, while only 5.9% of people aged 65 and over have experienced a mental disorder (during this time span). Fourteen per cent of Australian children and adolescents aged 4-17 have mental health or behavioural problems, this rate of mental health problems is found in all age and gender groups although boys were slightly more likely to experience these mental health problems than girls. Family doctors, school-based counsellors and paediatricians provide the services
A significant number of these investigations analyzed the impact of sugar-sweetened soda pops on weight pick up in kids and teenagers. In one analysis, young people supplanted sugar-sweetened soda pops in their eating regimen with falsely sweetened sodas that were sent to their homes more than 25 weeks. Contrasted and kids in a control bunch, youngsters who got the misleadingly sweetened beverages saw a littler increment in their BMI (by −.14 kg/m2), however this impact was just measurably noteworthy among the heaviest kids (who saw an advantage of −.75 kg/m2). In another study, an instructive system urged schoolchildren to devour less delicate drinks.During the school year, the predominance of weight diminished among youngsters in the project by 0.2%, contrasted with a 7.5% expansion among kids in the control bunch.