Its purpose is to guide instructors in incorporating activities and discussions that will help learners understand how they learn, their strengths and their needs, and to better understand the learning process. Metacognition is the process of thinking about thinking. It is the process of developing self-awareness and the ability to self-assess. It is contemplation about one’s education and learning -- past, present, and future. Since adults are largely self-determining, helping them develop metacognitive skills is an essential element in any program intended to increase their autonomy.
The constructivism view demonstrates the importance of focusing on the learner’s thinking about learning rather than its subject. It also thinks all knowledge is attributed to experience by the learner and his community. Bruner, J (1966) mentions that learning is an active process that new ideas will be constructed by one’s current and past knowledge. Previously the researcher mentioned that the cognitive structure is a mental process which allows a learner to push given information in past in order to construct a new idea. Likewise, this theory often described in a school education field.
Brown et.al. (1989) defines ‘learning is a process of enculturation’ (p. 33) where end results are secondary. Another salient element that aligns with the theory is the significance of interactions. As mentioned above, situated cognition employs some form of social interaction like collaborative learning. It also encourages the cognitive apprentice approach where reflective practices of learner (learner-self interaction) and the interaction between the learner and the facilitator are crucial, similar to my personal lens.
He believes students’ inquiries, research, reflection, comparing, contrasting, and debating of the issues are how adults learn. Bradsford, Brown, & Cocking (2000) report the contemporary school of thought of how people learn is a constructionist viewpoint. People build on the knowledge they already possess. It is a logical assumption from this view that if during the experience of learning more points of view are expressed and explored, new knowledge will be the result. Once again, Knowles and associates (1984) postulated there are distinct differences between how adults and children learn.
The importance of life experiences and knowledge means that adults wants to apply their knowledge to what they do and to be acknowledged for it. Biases, self identity and habits are defined from experiences. Readiness to learn refers to a person's need to learn in order to cope better with tasks and problems. The need for practical and applicable learning refers to applying what they are learning to their lives. Lastly, internal motivation refers to motivators like better quality of life, increased job satisfaction, incentives that motivates them.
In a constructivist classroom the teacher is perceived as one of the learners who is more experienced and acts like a ‘guide’ to enable the students to explore some new fields of knowledge. According to Brooks and Brooks (2012) the teacher tries to understand the way learners’ brains work, and she or he leads them to construct and combine the newly-gained knowledge with what students already know from the previous experience. Experiential learning, made by American theorist David Kolb is learning through reflection on doing and which is often contrasted with rote or didactic learning. It is related to, but not synonymous with, experiential education, action learning, adventure learning, free choice learning, cooperative learning, and service learning. While there are relationships and connections among all these theories of education, importantly they are also separate terms with separate meanings (Nsamenang & Tchombe 2011) Thus, one makes discoveries and experiments with knowledge firsthand as a result of assessment, instead of hearing or reading about others' experiences.
These factors are the main players through implementing the constructivism theory. Yilmaz (2008), states in his article about the importance of implementing constructivism in the education process as it helps the student to build his/her knowledge and understanding gradually. It also helps the teachers and practitioners ensure that they do not move from a level of teaching or training without ensuring that the student or learner mastered the previous level. According to a research report conducted by Learning and Skills Research Center (LSRC) (2006), adults with educational difficulties have been discussed by theorists and practitioners such as Sebba, Byers and Rose (1995), who referenced those difficulties to medical, psychological and ecological models. Also, Sebba et al.
In addition, the teaching strategies should highlight important information and content to enhance the learning process. Next, the designer needs to integrate new information with existing information from long-term memory to enable existing cognitive. Finally, learning content broken down into several small volumes to avoid the cognitive load. If more than five or six items to be learned, lessons-linear, non-linear, spider map and mind map should be
It is the area lying between what the learner can achieve with the teachers’ guidance and what they can achieve independently focusing primarily on activities. By scaffolding tasks, providing instruction and support that challenges the learner based on their abilities, and through providing good feedback using assessment for learning, students develop deeper levels of understanding by the teacher’s help. Active learning is also persistent with other theories of learning: Learning should be compatible and positioned within a meaningful context. This idea was developed by the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau and influenced several educators in the early 20th century such as John Dewey and Maria Montessori. It led to discovery and inquiry-based learning models.
But a single score in traditional tests may reveal students’ different understanding of the subject matter and may show that they have employed different strategic processes. Sole dependence on tests consisting of response-choice items may lead to instruction that emphasizes recall of facts and the application of memorized routines or procedures. Cowie and Moreland (2015) in his book stated that for students to become discerning, classroom assessment needs to ensure students experience and exercise individual and decision making. It must be applied to their everyday life and used for a long life learning. However, if assessment requires synthesis of information, divergent thinking and evaluation, instruction is more likely to include activities that promote these skills.