In meat industries the adulteration process represents the presence of unknown species of meat, use of meat varieties of commercially lower value, use of low quality raw materials, replacement of animal or plant proteins and incorrect labeling of ingredients. Nowadays the mislabeling fraud is a common event in the food products industry like meat products trading (1, 2). According to the United States Pharmacopeial Convection the definition of food fraud is the deliberate mislabeling of food products for financial gain with the intent of deceiving and cheating the consumers regarding what is actually in the packages of food products (3). (Spink and Moyer 2011) define food fraud as any substitution, addition, tampering, misrepresentation of
All solvents are pesticide residue (PR) grade and were purchased from SDFCL Fine Che-Limited. Dichloromethane (DCM), acetone, hexane (HPLC grade), sodium chloride (AR grade) were procured from SDFCL Fine Che-Limited. Analytical standards of 4, 4, DDT and HCH were purchased from Sigma Aldrich Laborchemikalien GmbH. The standard solutions (1.0 μg/mL) of individual and the mixture of organochlorine pesticides were prepared in hexane. Millipore Milli-Q purified water was used throughout the experiment.
Food is the basic necessity of life. It should be pure, nutritious and free from any type of adulteration for proper maintenance of human health. However, we might be eating a dangerous dye, sawdust, industrial starch or other contaminated foods which are a major source of diseases nowadays. An adulterant is a chemical substance which should not be contained within other substances for legal or other reasons. Addition of adulterant is called adulteration.
The reagents used were Diphenylamine reagent which contains concentrated H2SO4. The standard solution used for this test is the deoxyribose standard solution. In the sample, only a faint blue solution appeared, which indicates a small presence of deoxyribose. In test for Phosphate, the standard solution was the Phosphate solution and the reagents used were concentrated H2SO4, concentrated HNO3, 2.5% ammonium molybdate solution. The principle involved in this test is the precipitation of phosphate which bores a yellow-colored solution and yellow precipitate.
Because it is a tertiary benzylic halide, the reaction is considered an SN1 type. To test the purity, the class then uses a TLC. When one places,” a spot of the substance on the absorbent surface of the TLC plate, the solvent (or solvents) run up through the absorbent,” (Zubrick223). The initial mass of the reactant, triphenylmethyl chloride was 2.006 grams. The experiment yield is 1.589g, which is a 80.3% yield.
Historically, food and crime have incredibly often been related (Croall, 2014). In the 19th century, almost every available food was in some way adulterated (Accum, 1820 in Wilson, 2008). However, it was not until 1820, when fifteen people died after eating adulterated lozenges, that the need for regulations and reforms about food safety was exposed in the UK (Paulus, 1974). There are many ways, during the 'food chain' - that is all the processes that food goes through during its growth, preparation, distribution and consumption - in which food could be involved in different kinds of crimes. This section aims at providing a selective review of the most significant ones.
3) Centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 12 mins. Upper hexane layer (supernatant) was transferred carefully into another test tube. 4) Evaporated the hexane under a stream of grade 1 nitrogen gas and added 100 µl of methanol to the residue left and vortexed for 1 min. 5) Injected 100 µl of extract in HPLC vials and closed properly. Standard curves and calculations- Retinol was quantified from standard curves peak area for each vitamin.
Historical overview: In the 19th century, almost every food was counterfeit and adulterated (Accum, 1820 in Wilson, 2008). In 1820, 15 people died after eating adulterated lozenges (“Bradford incident”). This lead to law reform in the UK (Paulus, 1974). This showed the urgent need of regulation able to stop sellers from putting harmful ingredients in food in order to make it look better/cost less. This, however, is still happening today all over the world (e.g.
Phosgene and methylamine (CH3NH2) were reacted to produce methylcarbamoyl chloride (CH3NHCOCl) plus HCl. 4. Methylcarbamoyl chloride was then pyrolyzed to yield MIC (CH3NCO) and HCl. 5. In the last step, MIC was reacted with a slight excess of O-naphthol in the presence of a catalyst in carbon tetrachloride solvent to produce cabaryl.