Biodiesel Essay Introduction

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Abstract
Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. There are many benefits for the environment, economy and consumers in using bio-fuels. Bio-oil can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Upgrading of bio-oil to a transportation fuel is technically feasible, but needs further development. Bio-fuels are made from biomass through thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction and supercritical fluid extraction or biochemical. Biochemical conversion of biomass is completed through alcoholic fermentation to produce liquid fuels and anaerobic digestion or fermentation, resulting in biogas. In wood derived pyrolysis oil, specific oxygenated compounds are present in relatively large amounts. Basically, the recovery of pure compounds from the complex bio-oil is technically feasible but probably economically unattractive because of the high costs for recovery of the chemical and its low concentration in the oil
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Biodiesel is one of the biofuels with the most compatible characteristics with the fossil fuel (petroleum diesel). Thus, biodiesel can be directly used in the existing diesel engines. Each biomass processing system comprises the following steps: microalgae growth, harvest, dewatering and drying. Two methods of algal oil transformation are applied. A two-step method that is divided into oil extraction and oil trans esterification and single step in situ trans esterification of algal oils to biodiesel. Three types of conversion methods prevail: chemical, thermochemical and enzymatic.
SYNTHESIS OF BIODIESEL:
 Algal oils and their trans esterification to fatty acid methyl

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