Thermal properties of liquids play a major role in thermal related applications in industrial processes. The heat transfer property of any fluid is dependent mainly on its thermal conductivity. Conventional heat transfer fluids have poor thermal conductivity which makes them inadequate for high thermal applications. Scientists have tried to enhance the inherently poor thermal conductivity of such conventional heat transfer fluids using solid additives. Fine tuning of the dimensions of these solid suspensions in millimeter and micrometer ranges for getting better heat transfer performance have failed because of the drawbacks such as still low thermal conductivity, particle sedimentation, corrosion of components of machines, particle clogging, excessive pressure drops etc.
In an advanced production world, non-eco-friendly products are gaining attention from the company as well as the mother earth. The waste that produced today will pollute the environment later. Styrofoam is used mainly for packaging due to its lightweight. But now, we suggest replacing Styrofoam to Mycofoam. Mycofoam main ingredient is mycelium.
Packaging industry mostly dominated by plastic materials and it has resulted in an increase of plastic waste which directly destroying the environment. Such materials cannot be degrading easily, expensive for the recycling and causes contamination to food stuffs. One of the alternative ways to solve this problem is biodegradable films.Recently studies on biodegradable packaging films for the replacement of synthetic polymer-based food packaging materials have increased (Abdorreza, Cheng, & Karim, 2011). Biodegradable packaging materials can be degraded into water, carbon dioxide, and inorganic compounds without toxic residues (Siracusa, Rocculi, Romani, & Dalla Rosa, 2008). However, biodegradable packaging has shown some limitations in terms of thermal resistance, water barrier function, mechanical properties, and costs.One of the greatest inventions in biodegradable packaging is edible packaging film.
Unfortunately, the chemical method has many disadvantages of pollution to the environment, and difficulty in removing the residual chemical substance from the degummed fiber. As a result, the green awareness and concerns about the environment are increasing, which has paved way for eco-friendly degumming method research . Recently, a large number of degumming methods have been studied, which can be summed up in mechanical and biological technology. Among these methods, chemical agents also have to be used to improve the degumming effect, which does no good to the
(3) Poor selective adsorption of organic pollutants from aqueous phase . (4) The photocatalytic treatment of a high concentration of organic pollutants from industrial waste poisons the photocatalyst resulting in deactivation . (5) Difficult isolation and recovery of photocatalysts from the reaction mixture is not easy. Conventional technique such as filtration and sedimentation are not efficient because of the nano-size of the photocatalyst particles. This limitation hinders the economics and sustainability of heterogeneous photocatalyst for water purification process [37-39].
Organometallic catalysts, for example, present wide substrate scopes and high productivity, thus they are often used in chemical manufacturing. However, their selectivity is poor, they present inability to function in aqueous solution and their reactions often require harsh conditions, such as high pressure. On the other hand, biocatalysts are widely used in pharmaceutical industry and green chemistry, due to their high selectivity. However, their main disadvantages include their low productivity and their inability to maintain high catalytic activity in organic solvents and high
It is now rarely used because of its comparatively more side effects, such as it irritates the skin and has disagreeable odor. “Derivative of phenols are called phenolics.” In these substances, the molecule of phenol is chemically altered, in order to make it more efficient and reduce its irritating qualities. Examples are cresol, hexachlorophene and so on. MODE OF ACTION: Phenols actively precipitate proteins and denatures proteins hence, damaging the microbe. By lowering the surface tension, they disrupt membranes effecting, the stability of microorganism.
Chemical surfactants are found to be highly toxic even at low concentrations and poses environmental risks by producing detrimental compounds through incomplete biodegradation ‘Gutiérrez et al. (2002). Even after the sewage treatment, a high percentage of the surfactant molecules remain unaffected which are continuously releasing into the environment ‘Kosaric (1992). Biosurfactants are better-quality eco-friendly replacements for chemical surfactants and their specific structural properties, make them able to have wide range of applications in varied areas of
Application of vinyl or isopropenyl esters as the acylating agent for transesteriﬁcation offers an effective solution to overcome equilibrium because the enol co-product is immediately transformed irreversibly into acetaldehyde or acetone [17–18]. Thus, it was thought worthwhile to study kinetics and mechanism of the transesteriﬁcation of alcohols with lipases. Even though, enzymes holds wide range of advantages they are not preferred by industries due to their slow rate of reaction and higher cost. So as to overcome this problem, various novel techniques such as microwave, super critical fluid were applied to increase rate of reaction, yield obtained was better than that of conventional process but they also have short coming of sample subjection to higher temperature and formation of undesirable byproducts and frequent use of toxic organic solvent
Traditional methods for the cleanup of dyes in the textile waste water usually involve the removal of unwanted materials through sedimentation, filtration and chemical treatments such as flocculation, neutralization and electro-dialysis before disposal. These processes may not guarantee the treatment of toxic dye in the effluent. Moreover, considering the volume of wastes released during the industrial production process these are often laborious and expensive (Gopi et al., 2012). Over the past decades, biological decolorization has been investigated as a method to transform, degrade or mineralize dyes (Banat et al., 1996). Moreover, such decolorization and degradation is an environmental friendly and cost-competitive alternative to chemical decomposition processes (Verma et al., 2003) .Bioremediation a economic viable safe