Objectives: To give a clear understanding of different possible construction material that can be used on constructing a shopping mall to the Client; specifically on different aspects of concrete. 1 Introduction: Concrete constitute of aggregates (stones), sand, cement and water. Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. It is used in many different structures such as dam, pavement (rigid), building frame or bridge. The strength of concrete varies according to the proportions of its constituents.
Concrete is the primary material in construction industry. It consists of cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, water and other admixtures. Generally Ordinary Portland cement is used in concreting but the production of OPC causes a huge amount of carbon emission and also it uses a huge amount of non-renewable natural resources. The concrete construction practice in use is considered as unsustainable because it consumes a huge quantity of sand, stone and water and 2.5 billion tons of OPC per year. A major component of concrete is cement, which has its own environmental and social impacts and contributes largely to those of concrete.
HPLC also make its contribution to pharmaceutical manufacturer. Pharmaceutical manufacturer used the technique of separation by using HPLC to control the quality and dosage of drugs. HPLC also used in legal usage. The concentration of drugs in urine can be analysed by using HPLC to found out the drug abuser. HPLC also helps in the environmental application.
However, most countries as of now do not recycle a large percentage of the concrete; with the leaders being Netherlands and UK both countries which have a consumption of recycled aggregate above 20% (Jahren, 2013). This is not all, according to Jahren, other materials such as used tires and glass can be used as aggregate in concrete for both functional and aesthetically pleasing results. Researchers have presented preliminary results of using different materials from wasted plastic as light weight aggregate in concrete to hemp and even slag from lead production. (Jahren, 2013).
Concrete materials are still a dominant material for construction due to its advantages suchas workability, low cost and fire resistance as well as its low maintenance cost. It is formed from a hardened mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and some admixture. Massive exploration of the natural resources for producing concrete affect to the environment condition and global warning. We have responsibility to reduce the effect of the application of concrete materials to environmental impact. The concrete should be used as efficient as possible.
Concrete, a strong, durable material composed of cement, aggregate, and water, is the most used building material in the world. The improvement of concrete is needed and essential in order to increase the performance and sustainability. Good quality concrete requires adequate compaction during casting by skilled labours, which have numerous disadvantages. Self-compacting concrete (SCC), with self-compacting ability enables the concrete to self-levelled and compacted under its own weight without internal or external compaction. The highly fluid nature of SCC makes it suitable for placing in difficult conditions and in sections with congested reinforcement.
It is very essential to keep the concrete moist and warm enough. An efficient and un-interrupted curing is a must. In the summer, due to combined effect of sun and drying wind concrete surfaces are likely to get dry thereby results in to inferior quality of concrete. Hence, wet covering and proper water curing must be ensured to get the quality
So according to Mr. Ahmad Mujahid the use of demolished concrete pavement as recycled aggregate and the advantages of recycling aggregate concrete in construction industry are of large values and environmental issue. RCA widely used accepted that there significant potential for reclaiming and recycling demolished debris for use value added application to maximum economic and environmental benefit and according to the Prof. Chetna M. Vyas after detailed study and analysis find to the early compressive strength of concrete made of natural aggregate and recycled concrete aggregate is approximately same under dry condition and tensile strength was also improved. So we can used to both of analysis something new to added material that is light weight and economic. Fiber and improved to the strength of
Despite the fact that the structure of a building speaks to regularly just 10% of development cost, the decision of construction material can have emotional consequences for the expense of different components of development. The subsequent basic expense of this method could be higher, however compared to the overall project cost of a conventional method, HCC would be much lower due to time saving and buildability of the structure. Speed
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 GENERAL Concrete is an extraordinary and key structural material in human history. Concrete holds the credit of being the most widely utilized tailored or man- made material in the construction industry and will hold good for the years to come. This credit goes to the properties of concrete like excellent strength, durability, less maintenance costs and use in many structural applications. But in the recent years the concrete industry is facing a big challenge mainly due the cement which is a vital component. International Energy Agency states that cement production accounts for 7% of total global CO2 emissions.