2.0 Literature Review 2.1 Celebrity Endorsement 2.1.1 Celebrity Endorsement and the Selection of Celebrity Endorser Celebrity endorsement is a common and widely-used marketing strategy to promote brand awareness, brand recognition and product sales by using celebrities with well-known reputation and influence (McCracken, 1989). The use of celebrities in marketing promotion events already has a long history and is not a recent phenomenon (Kaikati, 1987). Celebrities endorsement can be traced back to the late nineteenth century. A typical example was the involvement of Queen Victoria with Cadbury's Cocoa (Sherman, 1985). In the past decade, the use of celebrities has rapidly increased (Runyan et al., 2009).
2.3.5 Celebrity-brand/product Congruence While analyzing the influences of a celebrity endorser on consumer attitudes and behaviors, it is critical to take into account of the celebrity-brand/product congruence, is also referred as the match-up hypothesis, which is another important stream in celebrity endorsement research. The match-up hypothesis concerns the necessity for an appropriate fit or a match between the celebrity and the brand or product being endorsed (Ilicic & Webster, 2011; Till & Busler, 1998). Kahle and Homer (1985) also depicted that there should be a fit or congruence between a celebrity endorser and the endorsed product or brand. Advertising effectiveness is enhanced when the celebrity endorser’s image fits or matches with
It is very important for marketers to analyse the endorser because it will influence the consumers purchase intention. Marketers can create the purchase desire by taking liking and trustworthiness into account. If the consumers like the celebrity then they will automatically trust them. Celebrities can earn their trust from the public on the work and achievement in the respective field and marketers utilises the trustworthiness in an advertisement. The trustworthiness is important in a celebrity endorser.
For example, if Bella Thorne did not advertise BooTea, then her fans would not have known that there is a tea brand that can help make your butt look better. Using celebrities to help promote products is how brands become popular, and it’s very efficient. It helps the celebrity and the brand become known and make more money. People have a right to start their own business and advertise it however they want, whether it’s on billboards, or a commercial during the Super Bowl, or on a game advertisement, or with the help of a celebrity. If a company chooses to put a famous figure on their cereal box or in one of their advertisements then they legally can, because it is an effective way to
1. Introduction Celebrity endorsement is now a day's a very useful practice of advertising among various tools to market the product or services as well, for marketers it has been a winning formula. It is easy to select the best celebrity in advertisement but it is quite difficult to create the association between the product and celebrity The capability of two advertising tools celebrity endorsement and event sponsorship have an impact on consumer pre-purchase decision including perceptions with regard to product quality and uniqueness is the focus of this study.. Marketers are interested to make more customers who are potential and are influenced by celebrities. Day by day consumers are exposing to so many of voices and images through media including audio visual aids.
There have been different definitions for the concept of celebrity endorsers. In 1989, McCracken defined a celebrity endorser as a person “who enjoys public recognition and uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appear with it in an advertisement”. Gupta (2009) considered celebrity endorser as a person who can use their name to get public attention, raise public interest and generate profit prom the public. In other words, associating with a celebrity allows companies to create background stories and eventually, the product or brand will receive attention from the public. A celebrity endorser can also be understood as a person who is known by the public when appearing in an advertisement with a product to promote that product
A celebrity is usually used in the promotion of things ranging from foodstuffs, cars, sportswear, shoes, clothes and so on, the baseline is, celebrity endorsement beats all the other methods when it comes to making a product look appealing in the eyes of the many celebrity followers. There is always this urge to look like your favorite, actor, actress, sportsman, media personality or the models gracing magazines. And the closest people can get to that is through purchasing things similar to the ones the celebrity has (Kaser, 2012)1. This is the exact method applied by Christian Dior when they decided to pick Sharon Stone as their face of Christian Dior brand. The fact that this beauty related products brand needed a face to prove its effectiveness made Sharon Stone a suitable candidate because of her unbelievable flawless look in her forties.
This form of activity is known as celebrity endorsements, whereby the celebrity is enrolled into a brand and is used as a resource to market the products and services of the brand to the consumers, in a way that will make them desirable to the potential consumers and in return for the brand, an increase in sales and a change in the perception of their viewers regarding their brand, which positively impacts their buying behaviour. But why specifically a celebrity endorser one might ask? Basically, a celebrity is defined as someone who enjoys public recognition and is commonly well-known by the population resulting to them having a large influence on individuals in a society. Therefore, a brand is more interested in using the assistance of a celebrity because the usual aim of a brand is to create a larger support base to increase sales, thereof, this results in the businesses using popular public figures (celebrities) who already have an
Popular celebrities are being used by marketers in their advertisements in order to have a higher demand through consumer impact. The admiration of the consumers for their idols are being used for manipulation. Example, Daniel Padilla endorse a particular brand of food consequently his fans will patronize it and the result is, this business would be successful due to higher demand. Celebrity endorsement is being used in almost all types of products. The likeability of the celebrities are being used in persuading the consumers to purchase products.
Advertisement helps to provide well prepared messages to target groups, in this way it is encouraging marketing projects of the products and services of most companies. Today celebrity endorsement has become most popular form of advertising (Choi &Rifon, 2007). Flipping through the different TV slots, print media and radios or web-based social networking buyers find a significant number of endorsements. The majority of the TV slots are currently using big names as endorsers to promote brands (Erdogan et al., 2001). The growth in fame of VIP support can be credited to the capacity to take hold gathering