Composite Materials Research Paper

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Composite materials

Composite materials are materials that are helpful for the human and can be used in the daily life in different areas. Composite materials are used in different rang of industries such as, aircraft industries, automotive industries, medical use and so on. However, composite materials known as materials that made of two or more elements combined together to form composite elements [1]. Composite can form into two different phases known as matrix form and reinforcement, the main difference is that reinforcement phase is stiffer and stronger compared to the matrix one. The aim of combining the elements is to provide unique properties to composite material. Some of these properties are [2]:
• Strength
• Stiffness
• Corrosion
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However, nowadays the composite materials replace the usage of metallic materials. Sheet molding compound (SMC), which placed on unsaturated polyester has been extremely used in designing body panels, chassis parts and under the hood parts [4]. 1953 is the year were the automotive industries starts to use composite materials in designing the cars [5]. The Corvette is the first car that used composite in it is design; it is body was build of fiberglass, which is a composite material [5].

However, thermoplastics are the most popular materials that are used in automotive component [5]. Thermoplastics materials provide a great production range through inoculation [5]. 2001 Volvo V70 XC AWD is a good example of structure of the component of Thermoplastics materials [5]

Composite materials in F1 car
Engineers use composite materials to build and design Formula 1 (F1) cars. Historical, the use of composite in racing car was in 1920s up to 1930s in form of steel and wood chassis. However, McLaren team were introduced the first chassis of composite which is carbon fibre in 1980s. In 1970s, aluminium skinned and aluminium honeycomb was preferred way to construct composite chassis using cut and fold method. The McLaren team also used composite materials in the suspension in 1990 which case all teams to use composite in suspension system.
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Battery, engine, transmission, and steel can be recycled and resell it again [10].

Manufacturing techniques

The Process of molding composite materials divided into two important parts, which are: simple process and advanced process. However, an example of simple process is hand lay while sheet molding compound (SMC) is a good example of advanced process. Both processes are useful depending on how will be used in different types of applications. The selection of the process is extremely important to reach the necessary technical performance in industrial cost.

• Open Molding - Hand and Spray Lamination
Open molding is the most frequent process that used to produce composites parts and almost more than 40% of composites were made using open molding. It is an easy process to do with low cost but need high grade of manual processing.

• Hand lamination
This stage begins with the building of the mold. However, the mold is generally made of composite materials using sample made of wood, plaster or by any proper materials that may used. Mostly, the beginning point is to spray a polymer cover onto the surface of molding

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