EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF TURBOCHARGED SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE ABSTRACT Pollution due to auto exhaust has assumed menacing proportion in the developing countries, like India, where its contribution is nearly 45% - 75 % of the total air pollution in urban areas. Diesel powered vehicles and equipment account for nearly half of all nitrogen oxides (NOx) and more than two thirds of all particulate matter emission. For long turbochargers have been used to improve the power harnessed from the IC engine at the same input fuel quantity and without increasing the combustion chamber capacity. In this experiment we study the effect of turbocharger on the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. The experimental study is done on a 350 CC single
 investigated the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled by biodiesel at partial load conditions. Experiments were conducted on a common-rail fuel injection diesel engine using ultra low sulfur diesel, biodiesel B100 and their blend fuels of 10%, 20%, and 50% under various loads. The result showed that biodiesel/blends fuels had significant impacts on the engine BSFC and BTE at partial load condition. Qi et al.  examined the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of diesel and biodiesel as fuel in the CI engine, the power output of biodiesel was almost identical with that of diesel.
The large compression rate permits the air in the cylinder to gain warmth in order to ignite the fuel. Opponents of diesel engines have asserted that diesel vehicles emit 10 times more nitrogen oxides than non-diesel cars, diesel vehicles don’t offer high-speed performance, and that they need to be repaired more frequently in the short term so they are able to continue operating. Contrary to that, diesel engines are a better option because they offer a better economic mileage/price per gallon ratio, diesel engines also survive more than their gasoline counterparts, and diesel engines release a smaller amount of Carbon-Dioxide than a petrol engine. Firstly, diesel engines are a better option due to the
(http://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/how-to/a7487/should-you-convert-your-car-to-natural-gas/) Before the introduction of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a fuel, and CNG engines, there were steam and coal engines, which then evolved into today’s Gasoline and Diesel Engines and Fuels. The Diesel engine was invented (1892) and patented (1898) by Rudolf Diesel under Publication number US608845 A and entitled “Internal Combustion Engine” (https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/pdfs/US608845.pdf) . However this invention begins with the invention of the gasoline engine by Nikolaus August Otto, patented in 1876. The gasoline engine operates on the Otto Cycle principle, which is commonly known today as the four stroke cycle, and is the basic premise for most care engines. Despite this being an improvement over the present steam and coal engines of the time, the gasoline engine wasn’t very efficient.
Turbulent combustion and flow processes occurring in direct injection internal combustion engine are dominated by mixing throughout the engine cycle. This mixing is caused by several events such as direct fuel injection and piston movement; these events take place at different crank angle degrees within the engine cycle. Therefore, the mixing time will vary with the mixing intensity during the combustion the engine cycle and cannot be constant. In this work we are usinguse a time based mixing model developed by Pasternak et al. based on a previously developed Curl mixing model [41 and 51].
All jet engines, which are also called gas turbines, work on the same principle. The engine sucks air in at the front with a fan. A compressor raises the pressure of the air. The compressor is made with many blades attached to a shaft. The blades spin at high speed and compress or squeeze the air.
In a reciprocating compressor, gas is compressed by mechanical variation of the volume of space inside the cylinder, by reciprocating motion of the piston. For a cycle of operation, there are two strokes such as, 1) Suction stroke, and 2) Compression stroke As the piston moves down, air is sucked from atmosphere to the cylinder through suction valve (a non-return valve). As piston moves up, air is compressed and at the end of compression stroke, air is delivered through delivery valve (which is also a non-return valve). Topmost portion the piston can travel inside the cylinder is is called Top Dead Centre (TDC), and bottom most portion the piston can reach inside the cylinder is called as Bottom Dead Centre
The cylinder voyages descending, creating a vacuum, around the same time the admission valve opens. The vacuum pulls air and fuel into the ignition chamber and barrel. Layering Stroke - The admission valve closes, and after that the cylinder starts to go up the chamber, compacting the air-fuel mixture. Compacting the air-fuel mixture makes this mixture more unstable. Force Stroke - The compacted air-fuel mixture is lighted.
The first is mixing it with petroleum diesel fuel, solvent, or gasoline. The second is using the oil as it is, usually called SVO fuel (straight vegetable fuel). The third is converting it to biodiesel. Vegetable oil is much thicker than either petro-diesel or biodiesel. The purpose of mixing or blending with other fuels is to lower to viscosity to make it thinner, so that it flows a lot more freely through the fuel system into the combustion chamber.
CHAPTER 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION: Diesel engines are used to power automobiles, locomotives, ships and irrigation pumps. It is also used widely to generate electric power. Diesel engines offer higher thermal efficiency and durability. Despite these advantages, the environmental pollution caused by diesel engines becomes a major concern throughout the world. Diesel engines produce smoke, particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen (NOX), oxides of carbon (CO & CO2) and unburnt Hydrocarbon (HC).