It is first proposed by Khatib  for manipulators and mobile robots. This method creates a repulsive potential field around the obstacles and an attractive potential field around the goal. As the robot travels, the repulsive forces from obstacles drive the robot away from them. The attractive force field pulls the robot towards the goal. Koren and Borenstein  described the Virtual Force Field (VFF) concept.
Abstract - A robot/system capable of operating in active pipelines would be of great commercial and industrial benefit. Pipe inspection is necessary to locate defects due to corrosion and wear while the pipe is transporting fluids. Because pipelines are typically buried underground, they are in contact with the soil and subject to corrosion, where the steel pipe wall oxidizes, and effectively reducing wall thickness. Recently many plants' pipes and drains became old and many robots to inspect these pipes were developed in the past. Inspection robots are used in many fields of industry.
In realising he is a ‘thing that thinks’, he is discovering an ontological truth – his model of knowledge fails when applied to others. He cannot proof someone else’s existence because he thinks, and whether or not they think is irrelevant because he cannot project thought from their perspective. Truth is only known to Descartes because he concluded it in his own conscious mind and this subjective reality does not lead to objective reality beyond his own mind. His claim for self-realization proves little to some other self-conscious being. To say “I think, therefore, I am’, cannot be proven my anyone other than him.
Artificial intelligence has become a need of today time period. It is a computer science branch where machines help to act, sense, learn, and adapt to real world with the use of automating dangerous tasks and human capabilities. This will help derive the human race. This also helps to spark the human revolution on serious note. AI has brought convenience to the human life by powering gadgets and devices that are useful in daily life.
Brain inspired chips have artificial intelligence where they exhibit the properties to excel in pattern recognition, speech recognition, image processing and machine learning. They have the tendency to handle complex operations very efficiently. Where they could be used? Neuromorphic chips could be used to map neurological and psychiatric diseases based on multi-level clinical data to classify and diagnose brain diseases. These advanced processors could also be used in robotics to implant brain power to the robots and thereby make them intelligent artificially.
The Arduino Software (IDE) includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the board. The Uno has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another Uno board, or other microcontrollers. Arduino Uno The most common version of Arduino is the Arduino Uno. This board is what most people are talking about when they refer to an Arduino. Chapter IV Robot is a mechanical device that sometimes resembles a human and is capable of performing a variety of often complex human tasks on command or by being programmed in advance (American Heritage Dictionary for English Language).
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the ability of the computer to do things that people normally do. It is also an academic field which studies how to create computers that are capable of intelligence behavior. There are three different ways to develop a computer with artificial intelligence. The first method is to build systems that think exactly like people (Hammond, 2015). This is called a ‘strong AI’.
Conclusion It is possible to convert a inadmissible path into admissible by changing the pattern parameters ZMP is practically demonstrated in WL-10RD family of robots. Since then it is used in anthropomorphic systems and its stability is studied from different prospective including mathematical. ZMP error in the trajectory generation can be reduce by an adjustment in the height of Center of Gravity. To change the height we change the parameters in the inverted pendulum mode. In case of un-nominal walk of the robot, effects of un-nominal motion can be studied by changing the hip parameters.
This research will give an improved and efficient algorithm for robotic path planning that will generate an optimized path. Path planning in unknown environment is very difficult task since the map of the environment is not certain. Though robots are employed with sensors and global positioning system but due to uncertainty
It provides an understanding of how a processor executes any program. Assembly programming is the prerequisite knowledge of compilers. Assembly programs can in fact run faster than programs developed in high-level languages such as C language. Compilers sometimes cannot exploit the hardware features of the processor, or when the processor provides specific operations that compilers do not know. Therefore, it is often that speed-sensitive amount of an application is written in assembly language.