For analgesic activity aspirin and for anti-inflammatory activities diclofenac was used as standard drugs. It was found that petroleum ether extract showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Further it was reported that the steroids and flavonoids in petroleum ether extract of Phaseolus vulgaris Linn., seeds are responsible for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Antimutagenic activity For the experiment with the bean extract, a dose of 300 mg/plate of Ellagic acid (EA) were chosen as the antimutagenic control. The plate-incorporation test of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay was used to study the effect of phenolic compounds extracted from common beans against 1-NP (1-nitropyrene) and B[a] P benzo[a] pyrene mutagenicity.
Aerial parts of E.littorale were reported to show hypolipidaemic effect in p-dimethylaminobenzene (p-DAB) induced hepatotoxic animals . The plant is traditionally used in the treatment of hepatic diseases and as a blood purifier [30, 31]. The aqueous extract of E.littorale and its n-butanol and ethyl acetate fraction were reported to show potent anti-diabetic and lipid lowering effect . The active compound(s) of these effects might be present in the fractions  and
Tramadol is a synthetic opioid analgesic used to relief pain. It is an odorless powder, which is white, bitter, and crystalline in shape and it is readily soluble in water and ethanol. The molecular formula of tramadol is C16 H25 NO2 . HCl and figure 1 shows the chemical structure of tramadol. In the 1960s, Grünenthal GmbH developed tramadol.
Mitragyna speciosa or kratom is a tropical evergreen tree native in Southeast Asia and has been used in traditional medicine since the 19th century. However, the US Food and Drug Administration announced that the kratom plant has opioid properties and is unsafe for medical use. People in certain regions, such as Thailand and Indonesia, define the plant as a medicinal herb used for chronic pain management, treatment of opioid withdrawal symptoms, and recreational activities. However, pharmaceutical experts classify it as an opioid because of its chemical components and warn people of the potential danger the plant can cause in human health. The US FDA conducted a scientific analysis using a computational model to determine the compound in kratom.
Patrick at Johns Hopkins University, he patented the desiccant kind of material. The material came into existence in 1640’s which was used as the absorptive medium for poisonous gases during the World War-I. This material is generally Silica gel. The desiccant dehumidifier was invented and patented by Hanns F. Arledter, Edward R. Stacy and Clayton E. Bruke in United States on 8th Nov. 1963. While the dehumidifier having deliquescent material was patented by Philip S. Becker in19th April 1996 in United States.
Weil in 1884 suggested apomorphine for its potential use in treating Parkinson’s disease (14 from 218). Schwab and his co-workers and Cotzias (17 and 18 from 218) confirmed Weil’s suggestion where they found a significant decrease in tremors and rigidity associated with Parkinson’s disease. (ART 11 and 12 from 11). Physicochemical properties of
The Medicinal Properties of the Willow Tree Overview The willow tree has been used since ancient civilizations for its ornament, erosion control, timber, and especially its bark. The story of the willow tree dates to Hippocrates, 4000 BC, when people were advised to chew on the bark of a willow tree to lessen inflammation and reduce fever. The bark of the tree contains a compound called salicylic acid, which is a common ingredient in aspirin and is known for a multitude of medicinal effects ranging from something as simple as a pain-reliever to disease prevention. This paper focuses on the history of the willow tree, its anatomy, and its medicinal properties in relation to disease prevention. Willow Tree Anatomy The willow tree is of the genus
HISTORY The development of dentistry during the 19th century in combination with the germ theory of disease had a direct effect on the practice of dentistry. Irrigation in 19th century Literature from this period mostly contained numerous empirically based recommendations for a variety of rinsing agents and medicaments, such as pulp extirpation under a pool of oil of eucalyptus and cloves was advocated, the rationale being that these oils would penetrate the canal as the nerve was removed. Arsenic was introduced by Shearjashub Spooner et al (1836)4 to destroy the nerves of the teeth without causing pain. However, some cases of fatal consequences were reported due to the use of Arsenic and daily dressing with thorough canal irrigation was
Their research determined that ingested salicin becomes salicylic acid in the stomach, and that salicylic acid is responsible for the desired effects as well as undesirable toxic side effects that include gastrointestinal bleeding. In 1875 a derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, was synthesized from salicylic acid. Acetylsalicylic acid was discovered to have the properties of and to have many fewer side effects than salicylic acid. In 1899 acetylsalicylic acid appeared in powder form for the first time; 1915 was the first time that it appeared in pill form. A part of the terms of the peace treaty with Germany following World War I was the surrender of the patent and of the trade mark ASPIRIN for acetylsalicylic acid.
The sulfadoxine is used in combination with Pyrimethamine (500mg of sulfadoxine and 25mg of pyrimethamine) for prophylaxis and treatment of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum (Patrick, 2010 cited William and Petri, 2001). Sulfadoxine has structural analogs of p – amino benzoic acid (PABA) which inhibits dihydrofolic acid synthesis by inhibiting an enzyme called dihydropteroate synthetase, which has a vital role in the conversion of PABA to folic acid. Pyrimethamine is an antagonist to folic acid, with similar mechanism of action with trimethoprim. Pyrimethamine inhibits the reduction of dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid. Pyrimethamine interferes with tetrahydrofolic acid synthesis in malaria parasites.