Disasters are sudden, unpredictable, calamitous event, bringing great damage and devastation to life and property. Disasters can be natural like earthquake, landslide, tsunami, cyclones, flood or drought and major accidents. It can also be man-made like war and terrorism. Both in war and terrorism chemical, biological or radiological agent can be used. In any of these situations, significant social, environmental and economical impact would occur. Casualties following disasters and major accidents could escalate very rapidly if necessary preventive methods are not followed. Infectious disease disasters consist of biological attack, emerging infectious disease outbreaks, and pandemics. There are a broad range of potential biological agents, including bacteria, viruses, and toxins (of microbial, plant, or animal origin) used as bio warfare or bioterrorism. Bio warfare has the potential to result in high morbidity and mortality because aerosolized biological agents can infect or kill many people in a short period of time.
1.1 Biological Warfare (BW)
Biological warfare or bio warfare is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans as an act of war. The potential range of bioterrorism arrays from usage of agents by single or small groups against individuals or smaller subsets of the population to State-sponsored terrorism. The use of classical biological warfare agents