Will the decomposition rate of motor oil increased when to bromelain enzyme? 3. Is there a significant difference among the motor oil subjected with increasing concentration of bromelain enzymes in terms of decomposition rate? Hypotheses The hypotheses to be tested in this study are the following: 1. Bromelain enzymes affect the rate of decomposition of motor oil.
The reaction rate was much higher than the rates of the previous reactions. So essentially the amount of water determines the rate, and the amount of acetone determines how long it takes the solution to react and become completely clear. Introduction: To conduct this experiment, the rate law of a reaction was used, and included the rate of the reaction, the rate of the constant, and the concentrations of the reactants. Stated in this equation: rate ₌₌ k (reactant one)m (reactant two)n (reactant three)p. Where is k being the rate law constant and m, n, and p are the reactant order. The concentrations of the reactant are then determined by the reaction order.
Pancreatic lipase exhibits its maximal catalytic activity in the presence of oil/water interface . The affinity of pancreatic lipases differs amongst the various lipid excipients used in formulations of NLCs. It has been shown in in vitro studies that the lipolysis of GMS mediated by pancreatic lipase is faster than other lipids such as glyceryl tripalmitate. This is attributed to the specificity exhibited by the pancreatic lipase towards sn-1 and sn-3 positions. As the stearyl group is at 1-postion in GMS, lipase favors its hydrolysis .
Objective: I will be combining calcium carbonate with hydrochloric acid as a case study to measure the rate of chemical reaction. This gives us the equation CaCO3 + 2HCl H2O + CaCl2 + CO2 Background Information: Several factors are already known which increase (or decrease) the rate of reaction. An increase in concentration of the acid allows for a greater number of hydrochloric acid molecules colliding into those of calcium carbonate. Although not every single particle would result in a successful reaction, increasing the number of particles will increase the total number of reactions. Another method is to increase the surface area of the solute.
Then, toluene is added with continuous stirring before transferring the mixture to a separating funnel. The two immiscible layers formed within few minutes. The transfer of metal salts from the aqueous phase to toluene then completes where ethanol is found to be very important candidate without which metal ions would not be transferred to the organic phase by the direct mixing of an aqueous metal precursor solution with an organic solvent containing dodecyl amine. The fact that water and ethanol are miscible ensures the maximum contact between metal ions and dodecyl amine. A large number of commonly used popular methods, e.g., wet chemistry reduction, seed mediated growth, co-reduction, and solvothermal approaches could be adopted to produce metal or semiconductor nanoparticles after the transfer into the organic solvent.
Moreover, it acts as dehydrating agent, forcing the equilibrium to the products and lead to a greater yield of ester. After the addition of trace amount of concentrated sulfuric acid, the reactant flask is heated so that the reaction can be speeded up and ester can be obtained faster. The reason of adding concentrated drops-by-drops into the reactant flask and swirl the flask while adding the acid is to prevent any part of the mixture getting too hot and reacting to form unwanted darkly coloured by-product. Before the heating of the liquid, boiling chips is added inside the reactant flask to allow a nucleation site for gradual boiling and avoid a sudden boiling surge where may cause the liquids inside the reactant flask to overflow or spill out as it has
Enzymes are globular proteins folded into a complex 3-dimensional shape that contain a special surface region called the active site where specific substrate can bind structurally and chemically. They act as catalysts, meaning that they are substances which lower the activation energy required for a chemical reaction to occur and therefore increases the rate of the reaction. Activation Energy is the minimum energy barrier needed to be overcome before a reaction can occur by providing an alternative reaction pathway. The beneficial aspect of enzymes is that they are extremely efficient and may be used repeatedly. One enzyme may be used to catalyze thousands of reactions every second.
To obtain gasoline from petroleum fractional distillation is used where in the different type of hydrocarbons from petroleum, which has different boiling points is heat at different temperature. The different hydrocarbons then condense to liquid. The main ingredients of gasoline are heptane (C7H16) and isooctane (C8H18). The heptane and isooctane undergoes cracking and polymerization. In the process of cracking is when large hydrocarbons break down to smaller hydrocarbons while the process of polymerization is when small hydrocarbons bind together to form larger hydrocarbons.
Photochemical oxidation processes, based on the generation of more reactive hydroxyl radical (•OH) using UV/TiO2 and UV/H2O2 methods, can lead to mineralization of most contaminants. Examples of photocatalysts are TiO2, ZnO etc. There are two types of photocatalysis: Homogenous photocatalysis & heterogenous photocatalysis. When the photocatalysts and the reactants are present in the same phase, such type of photocatalysis is known as Homogenous photocatalysis. The most widely used homogeneous photocatalysts are ozone and photo-Fenton systems (Fe+ and Fe+/H2O2).
A two-step method that is divided into oil extraction and oil trans esterification and single step in situ trans esterification of algal oils to biodiesel. Three types of conversion methods prevail: chemical, thermochemical and enzymatic. SYNTHESIS OF BIODIESEL: Algal oils and their trans esterification to fatty acid methyl