Introduction: Bioplastics are a moldable plastic material made from many chemical compounds these compounds are synthesized by or may be derived from a lot of microbes as bacteria or by the genetically modified plant. This mean that the bioplastics derived from a renewable resources and are biodegradable while traditional plastics derived from materials based on petroleum(petroleum based plastics) and this type of plastics are not biodegradable, for this reason the disposing of traditional plastics has become a very serious problem and at present time it becomes one of main pollutants all over the world . Also the petroleum resources are being used up as petroleum is nonrenewable resource. Plastics are used daily in many purposes as packing
The word plastic comes from the Greek word πλαστικός (plastikos), which means "capable of being shaped or molded". It was a very big innovation at that time. Did anybody know at that time, a few decades later, the sea would have more pieces of plastic than fishes? That is where the initial problem begins, a few decades later,
Furthermore, bio-materials are also used by ophthalmologists for contact lenses etc. Auto-transplants i.e. transplant of body organs and tissues (skin etc.) to other parts of the body also come under the scope of bio-materials. Bio-materials are further used for artificial tissue regeneration, bone joint replacements,
This agar comprise of dextrose, lactose and sucrose, which acts as the carbohydrates sources. The medium osmotic balance is maintain by Sodium chloride The fermentation of the carbohydrate lead to acid production of yellow colour agar, detected by the pH indicator in the media, phenol red. Detection of hydrogen sulfide is through the indicator Ferric Ammonium citrate. A black colour will be seen in the medium from the hydrogen sulfide production from thiosuplhate due to FeS production. ,
Any scientific documentation on spherification method using a mixture of alginate, kappa and iota is also absent. The only study found on the usage of alginate-carragenan mixture in food is the development of encapsulation of caffeine (Belscak-Cvitanovic et al., 2015). The carrageenan used are was k-carrageenan through ionic-bonding mechanism. Other work in alginate-carragenan encapsulation was were in pharmaceuticals (Krishnamoorthy and Aminabhavi, 2004; Mohamadnia et al., 2008; Popa et al., 2011) , medicine and drugs field (Mohamadnia et al., 2008; Popa et al., 2011). Currently, there are no application of alginate-carrageenan in food consumption such as in spherification and tapioca pearl products.
Plastics are made from a raw material called naphtha which contains a mixture of hydrocarbons. This naphtha undergoes a process called cracking to form olefins or alkenes, namely propylene and ethylene, which are monomers that would ultimately bond to form polymers, that would later be transformed to plastics. Once these monomers are formed, they undergo chemical processes to bond together to form polymers, which contain long chains of the hydrocarbon. This is done by two methods namely polymerisation and polycondensation, the difference between the two being that first methods involves combination of monomers with the same functional group and the second involves combination of monomers that contain different functional groups which combine to form a polymer and also give out water as a byproduct. Once these polymers are formed, they are transformed into plastics by a number of methods.
In biology, seaweed is macro algae that live in fresh water and sea water that act as a primary producer in the water. It looks plant-like organisms that attach to any substrate such as rock that make photosynthesis to produce glucose as a their food.
1. INTRODUCTION Plastics are manmade molecule of long chain polymer. Substitution of natural material by synthetic polymers started more than half a century ago and the plastic became an indispensable part of life. (1) Stability strength and durability are the main features of plastics which impress all the mankind. With time these features are improved.
However this phenomena (Eutrophication) water becomes cloudy and normally shade green color and this water clarity decreasing reduce the amount of absorbed light for alga. In addition microorganisms and bacteria’s decompose dead alga and other planets and consume remained oxygen in the ponds and lakes. Eutrophication slowly limits various usages of lakes or ponds such as recreation, fishing, and even public health problems in case of influence to drinking water. There are two main type of eutrophication which are natural eutrophication and cultural eutrophication. Naturally nutrients loading during long time cause alga blooming, and natural eutrophication during decades.
Typical uses of Plastic made Products and Major Industries in Which Plastic Fabrication Process is used? Polyethylene Terephthalate: 2-liter soda bottles, single-use water bottles, cooking oil bottles, peanut butter jars, etc. High Density Polyethylene: Detergent bottles, yoghurt tubs, milk jugs, bottle caps, backpack frames, hard hats, hula hoops, etc. Polyvinyl Chloride: Plastic pipes, Saran wraps, outdoor furniture, flooring, siding, etc. Polypropylene: Bottle caps, food containers, drinking straws, etc.