2. Experimental method 2.1 Synthesis of PbSe and PbSe: Nd nanoparticles Neodymium doped PbSe samples (Pb1-xNdxSe) with x=0, 0.05, 0.10 at pH 5 were prepared by wet chemical precipitation technique, adding hydrazine hydrate as the precipitating agent at room temperature. Freshly prepared aqueous solution and analytical grade lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2), neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) and selenium dioxide (SeO2) were used as precursor materials. Initially, 2 g of lead nitrate and 0.555 g selenium dioxide were separately dissolved in 60 ml of double distilled water in three neck flask and stirred for 30 min. Conversion of neodymium oxide into nitrate by adding 2N nitric acid in a water bath is used as dopant precursor.
In this case, 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC) inhibitor is added by pump inside the third distillation tower. The distillation tower contains a structured packing of stainless steel mesh which is tantamount to 36 theoretical plates. Ethylbenzene and styrene, both are having similar boiling points, require 70–100 trays for their separation. Since styrene and ethylbenzene almost have similar boiling points, their
Indole production test The ability of bacterial isolates to produce indole in broth was tested following the method described by Seeley and Vandermark, (1981). Each fresh isolate was inoculated to sterile trypton broth in test tubes and incubated at 37±1o C for 24-48 hours. After incubation, to these tubes 0.5 ml of kovac’s reagent was added and mixed well. Development of red ring in alcohol layer within few minutes was considered as positive test for indole production. Composition of Trypton broth medium Composition of Kovac’s reagent Trypton 10g Sodium chloride 5g Calcium chloride 1g Distilled water 1000ml PH 7.2 P- Dimethyl amino benzaldehyde
Analytical indices related to fats and oils can be distinguished as structure or quality indices. Structure indices are the iodine value (IV), a measure of total unsaturation of an oil or fat; the saponification value (SV), an indicator of average M.W. ; and the hydroxyl value (HV), which is applicable to fatty compounds (or their mixtures) containing (Knothe, 2002). Saponification is the hydrolysis of fats or oils under basic conditions to afford glycerol and the salt of the corresponding fatty acid (Chalmers and Bathe, 1978). The saponification number is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the fatty acids resulting from the complete hydrolysis of 1g of fat.
SFE is used to extract pharmaceuticals from liquid and solid samples. The other widely used industrial applications are tobacco extraction, extraction of fats and oils and making of spice extracts. (5) SFE is mainly used for the extraction of bioactive compounds from a mixture for purification, quantification of active enantiomer, extraction from natural matrices, etc. SFE is effective in separating enantiomers. For example a simple resolution for the enantiomers of trans-1,2-cyclohexanediol by diastereomeric complex formation with tartaric acid and subsequent supercritical fluid extraction is developed.
Into round bottom flask taken 180 ml nHexane . Extracted at 75°C for 24 h until the solvent leached colourless. Dry solvent from sample. Followed by transesterification Transesterification process Transesterification is the process by which the glycerides present in fats or oils react with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to form esters and glycerol Chemical-Catalyzed Transesterification. In a 150 mL Erlenmeyer flask with a magnetic stir bar placed 0.25 g of anhydrous sodium hydroxide and dissolved it with 10 mL of methanol.
The mixture is allowed to reach its boiling temperature 110.6°C (383.75K) and mixed by magnetic-stirring bar from 3 to 4 hours. The first step results in intermediate potassium benzoate (C6H5COOK) and alkaline medium potassium hydroxide formed from alkaline potassium permanganate. When potassium permanganate dissociates, it forms potassium ions K+ and permanganate ions MnO_4^- of purple colour. This K+ ion reacts with water in the mixture and forms the basic
Experimental Procedure Materials: Egg shells, Orthophosphoric acid(99%SIGMA ALDRICH), Titanium dioxide (99%SIGMA ALDRICH),Ammonia solution. Pure Hydroxyapatite synthesis: Cleaned and Uncrushed eggshells were calcined in air atmosphere at 900 ºC for 1h, organic materials will decay during heating of first 30 minutes, later on the egg shells will be recovered as calcium oxide. Then the calcined eggshells are grinded into very fine powder using mortar. 5gms of egg shell powder were dispersed in distilled water.To this2M of Ortho phosphoric acid is added drop by drop with continuous stirring for 1hr such that Ca /P ratio is 1:67.The pH is found to be 8.5 at the end of the reaction. The precipitate formed was subjected to aging treatment for
Step-III: Synthesis of Cr(II) Complexes: The Schiff's base complexes were synthesized by mixing the Schiff's base (1.5 g) in ethanolic solution of Chromium chloride [CrCl2]. This reaction is refluxed in a waterbath for two hours and their volume were reduced to 70% of it’s original volume and residue was obtained. The coloured product obtained was filtered under suction, washed with ethanol. The product were recrystallized from ethanol. Their yields ranges from 50-55%, the product obtained were light green colour and melting point was 2100C.
They were as follows i) N hexane ii) Petroleum ether iii) Methanol iv) Chloroform The powdered plant material (50 gm) was successively extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with an elevated temperature using 250 ml of n-hexane, followed by petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform, according to increasing solubility. All extracts were filtered individually and poured on petri dishes to evaporate the solvents from the extracted material. After drying, crude extracts were stored in stock vials and kept in refrigerator for further use. 3.2 Extraction of the Terminalia bellirica plant material Here hot solvent extraction process was used for extraction of the plant material. Four solvents were used for the extraction of the plant material.