We can set the boot priority as CD drive or floppy drive. MBR: Now the duty of BIOS is to read the MBR. MBR stands for Master Boot Record and it’s the first sector on a hard disk. MBR contains the partition table and boot loader. FUNCTIONS OF BOOT LOADER Now BIOS has passed the control to boot loader and the boot loader is a small program which loads kernel to computer memory.
Algorithm Analysis and Design Analysis Report on DYNAMIC TABLES By Nageen Saleem Roll Num 102-BsCS-12 Section C Elucidation of Dynamic tables Dynamic Table basically is a form of tables used in databases with the attribute of column and rows. However, the term Dynamic tells us that a constant activity is being held in the table. This activity is actually reducing the overloading and memory of the table with an average search time and sorts out the complete table dynamically. Moreover Dynamic tables allow an item to be added or removed by adding or removing slots without letting the whole table affected. Why Dynamic Tables Hash Tables serve as good form of tables, but the problem with them is they are not flexible enough to add
HDFS store these both separately. HDFS stores its metadata and edit log at namenode and application data on datanode. In traditional data management systems or filesystems when we store data and process it , we have to traverse whole data which is costly and time consuming and all data was stored on single physical machine, if machine crashes all the data will get lost. So overcome these limitations HDFS was designed. HDFS has the following advantages over traditional systems: • Commodity Hardware: HDFS does not require expensive and highly reliable hardware because it can run on clusters of common available hardware that can be obtained from multiple vendors.
The instruction register address fields Rt bits [25 - 21], Rs bits [20 - 16], and Rd bits [15-11] are used to address the register file. The register file supports two independent register reads and one register write in one clock cycle. The register file reads in the requested addresses and outputs the data values contained in these registers. These data values can then be operated on by the ALU whose operation is determined by the control unit to either compute a memory address (e.g. load or store), compute an arithmetic result (e.g.
Advantages of accessing memory through virtual address are as follows: 1. Program will use a contiguous range of virtual addresses in order to access large memory buffer which is not contiguous in physical memory. 2. A program can use a range of virtual addresses to access a memory buffer that is larger than the available physical memory. As and how physical memory becomes small, the memory manager will be the pages of physical memory to a disk file.
The other databases give the users a major access of their data or storage therefore there is a possibility of bugs entrance or making the data corrupt. The RDBMS however consumes a lot of physical memory and the problem on the other hand is not present in the object oriented programming database management systems. This system uses the objects of classes to manipulate data and therefore the data with similar data types consumes the same classes making it possible for the database consume less storage. But in order to take the advantages of both the databases there is a combination of the two databases i.e. object relational database management system.
Microsoft Windows operating system has a utility called 'Disk defragmentation' Disk defragmentation is the process of combining and rearranging files which are stored on hard disk in order to increase access time. To understand what disk defragmentation is , first we need to understand the hard disk and how it operates and stores data , actually there are three facts for this article Figure 1 : two components of hard drive 1) As shown , this figure shows the hard drive It has the hard disk or platters : Which are a circular discs Each platter consists of tracks that store data in chunks and the number of tracks increases to the inner side. Tracks is divided into smaller storage units called sectors and each sector can hold more than
The devices that can send data directly to the CPU or which does not need to encode it before sending to CPU are considered Direct Entry Input Devices such as scanners. Devices such as keyboard require encoding data so that it is in the form a CPU can understand are Indirect Entry Input Devices. Memory Unit: Memory Unit is the component where computer store programs and data. Two classes of storage Primary storage Fast Programs must be stored in memory while they are being executed Large number of semiconductor storage cells Processed in words Address RAM and memory access time Memory hierarchy – cache, main memory Secondary storage – larger and
Processes cannot communicate through shared data structures and hence sophisticated synchronization techniques like monitors are not needed. Message passing solves not only communication but synchronization as well. Disadvantages of Distributed memory systems are: 1. In order to achieve high performance in multicomputer special attention should be paid to load balancing. 2.