As stated by the University of Utah (2014), animal cloning results to abnormal gene patterns and genes are not expressed at the right time. In cloning, the nucleus is not arranged to reveal genes at a certain time as compared to the nucleus of a natural embryo. Scientists are the ones that arrange the nucleus and they reprogram it for the development of the animal. These scientists do not completely reprogram cloned animals which results to abnormal growth of the embryo. Aurelia (n.d.) explains that cloning creates identical genes and this prevents the process of replication.
Pollination is required by the bees and a pesticide that is less harmful to bees, but is also effective at protecting other fruit and vegetable, needs to be created. Secondly, there needs to be a reduction in the human activities that cause stress to honey bees. One way to solve the stress of human activities is to create bee habitats that are located in isolated areas from human activity. These should still be privately- owned and operated, but function so that the bees are removed from harmful activities. Finally, the third cause for the Bee Colony Collapse Disorder is the small beetle that is invading the bee colonies and killing the bees.
So, even if we do test on animals, humans eventually have to be tested on and the drug successes on the animals didn’t work on humans. Due to this failure in clinical trials when the solution reaches the human, all the time spent trying to find a cure or treatment was put to
Paul Furlong Professor of Clinical Neuroimaging at Aston University says "it's very hard to create an animal model that even equates closely to what we're trying to achieve in the human." Thomas Hartung argued that "we are not 70 kg rats." The 1950s sleeping pill thalidomide, which caused 10,000 babies to be born with severe deformities, was tested on animals prior to its commercial release. Later tests on pregnant mice, rats, guinea pigs, cats, and hamsters didn’t have any birth defects unless the drug was taken at extremely high doses (“Cruelty”). Animal tests on the arthritis drug Vioxx showed that it had a defensive result on the hearts of mice; however, the drug caused more than 27,000 heart attacks and sudden cardiac deaths before being taken out of the market (“Animal”).
Research dedicated to the consequences of the implementation of gene drives have not been performed. However, the approval of subsequent research will incentivize additional funding and consideration for the chance the gene drive will be implemented. Kevin M. Esvelt theorized that Crispr could be used to preserve endangered species by reducing the population of invasive animals. Using genetic engineering, doctors have treated a terminal brain disease, an accomplishment many believed to be impossible. The disease is adrenoleukodystrophy/ALD, a inherited mutated gene which kills nerve cells, destroying children's ability to walk or talk, causing them to die within five years.
By manipulating gene, there is fear that it may lead to the new formation of an unknown virus, which we don’t know yet. Our natural ecosystem is consistently changing due to climatic change, direct impact of population and pollution. To develop a bio based economy, we should use bio resources so as to contribute to sustainable industrial development. By modifying biological organism, enzymes from plants & animals and naturally microorganism are used to stimulate chemical reaction with high efficiency to develop diverse bio products that are harmless to the environment. An example is bio degradable plastic
Pastoralism also was used as a great source of reliable food. In times of drought, animals could be used in place of plants. Animals, like oxen, were used to speed up the production of plants too. They would be used to plow field faster. This allowed farmers to use more land, increasing production.
Labeling GMOs The labeling of GMO food is pure common sense, and we should have that information just like we have calorie count. Genetically modified foods are increasingly controversial as they become more widespread. The U.S. manufactures more genetically modified (GM) foods than any other country (Streker). Sixty-one countries, including most developed countries, require labeling of genetically modified foods except for the United States (Burgaard). “In the genetic engineering process, scientists splice a specific gene that exhibits certain traits into a plant to create new artificial characteristics in organisms” (Burgaard; Streker).
Animal Testing Animal testing has a lot of controversy behind it, it doesn’t matter which side you pick there’s just the matter that we need to test medicines, the fate of the human population falls in this subject. Medicines and other drugs are very delicate and it’s not like we can cut them out of society. Therefore we need something to test it on because if not we could set a new disease out on the world with an untested medicine. We might as well keep it how it is because there will just be more casualties from either untested medicines or testing on the human kind which are more than a billion times smarter than a monkey or rodent and could seriously hurt themselves or the people around them. So with that Commercial and Scientific animal testing should be supported because it can help scientist find a
For example, chemicals that are already been proved as ingredients in shampoos are on the market, but companies try to verify the ingredients they want to include in their new shampoo again through animal testing. They first and only consider the development of new products rather than animal life. However, this sacrifice of an animal’s life does not provide accurate information about the risk to humans in animal experiments. This is because the physical responses to test chemicals of different species, humans and animals, are not the same. Materials that were harmless to laboratory animals could be dangerous to humans, and substances that were harmful to animals could also be harmful to humans.