3.2. SOCIOECONOMIC-RELATED INEQUALITY AND INEQUITY IN HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE 3.2.1. Defining inequality and inequity in health and health care utilization 126.96.36.199. Terms inequality, inequity and disparity In the health equity literature, the terms “inequality”, “inequity” and “disparity” are used interchangeably; however, as dictionary definitions, these are distinguishable. In the Cambridge Dictionary, these are defined as follows: • Inequality – the unfair situation in society when some people have more opportunities, money, etc.
Cross-cultural methods and approaches should be taken to accommodate for the diverse patient population in our communities. I will introduce the culture clash by first describing the Hmong point of view on health and illness. Then, I will proceed my analysis by comparing it with the Western perspectives and practices on healing. Social stigma will also be emphasized as another negative factor that affected the
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become one of the most troublesome public health issues in the world. Its mere occurrence has developed stigma and discrimination which have been identified as the major obstacles in the way of dealing effective responses to people living with HIV. A disadvantage stemming from stigma goes beyond what are often understood as discriminatory actions and expressions like social rejection, intolerance, avoidance, discrimination, stereotyping and violence (Parker & Aggleton, 2003). Stigma is identified as an important factor that affects the quality of life of people living with human immunodeficiency virus. Negative attitudes affect people living with HIV (PLHIV)
Introduction There is a rising concern on the topic of health inequalities, which refers to the differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups (World Health Organization, n.d.). Differences in mobility and mortality can be caused by different determines such as gender role, social classes, age, etc. This article will focus on how gender roles and social classes affect one’s health and how they contribute to health inequality as well as reasons for healthcare professionals to be sensitive on this topic. Analysis First and foremost, there factors affect health which is the state of complete physical, social and mental well-being instead of just the absence of disease (World Health Organization, n.d.). The following paragraphs would examine how general roles and social classes affect one’s health and cause health disparity.
FETAL DISTRESS The terms fetal distress and birth asphyxia are broad terms which may point at an adverse condition affecting the fetus. Fetal distress is a a term used to describe a situation where the clinician feels that the fetus is hypoxic or acidotic or is at risk of becoming so and this concern is significant enough to warrant intervention, usually in the form of operative delivery100. Fetal asphyxia is clinically defined as progressive hypoxaemia and hypercapnia with significant metabolic acidemia100. In practice, obstetricians put great emphasis on monitoring of the fetal heart rate patterns as the main means of assessing fetal well- being in labour, whether done by intermittent auscultation or continuous electronic methods. However,
Doubts of patients reflect the ambiguity of principles of bioethics practiced by the professionals, through the eyes of patients. Furthermore, conflicting situations will be discussed in relation to the question of autonomy. The Asian cultural setting has misled many patients and professionals to disregard some aspects of risk-aversive individualization. If possible, the link between these experiences and patients' claim to rights should be explained here, first within the framework of ignorance/power4, second, with what the actors call “structural problems”. The third is how breast cancer is characterized in comparison with other cancer types and how this characterization circulating around patients has molded the way patients (don't) accept the disease.
Moreover, it requires cultural support. When it comes to health settings, cultural barriers describe any impediment a person can encounter, for instance differing languages and conceptions of gender roles (Wilson & Mutha, 2010). These impediments that can cause miscommunication between people from different cultural backgrounds remain the major triggers of unsatisfactory health outcomes among Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders. Such impediments result in unequal health (Mobula et al, 2015). Studies have demonstrated that the various beliefs, knowledge, and interpretations of value, health, principles and identity make it difficult for indigenous people to employ mainstream healthcare facilities.
For as long as history has been recorded, gender inequalities exist among individuals. Gender inequality refers to unbiased differences in abilities, skills and other characteristics. It is also the denial of equal opportunities and rights with regards to employment, access to health care and education towards women. Gender is the social construct of individuals within a society which are learnt behaviours that can be unlearnt and sometimes changed overtime. Gender norms and inequalities are major contributors to the spread of HIV/AIDS.
Fertility transition theory with respect to gender equity is challenged by two statements: The measures taken by men and women to prevent births has resulted to a fertility decline and essential changes will occur to women’s lives as a result of a persistent decline of fertility. The latter statement can be further supported by the fact that women belonging to countries with high fertility suggest spending a huge amount of time on childbearing and child caring. Thus, it can indicate that the country’s focus on parenthood has deviated from other aspects when fertility decline continues (Mcdonald, 2000) which could be the case in Japan. Several studies to justify the fertility decline in many countries have tried different methods and tested different theories in order to understand the phenomenon behind it. While common indicators such as easier access to birth control pills and increase in women’s labour participation rate have been used to examine the decline, the indicators chosen suggest an association to the changing gender system as well (Mills, et.
Lee K. et al (2009) extensively expounded five areas of weaknesses that are detrimental to attaining good GHG. These are policy coherence and coordination; transparency and accountability; participation and representation; resource mobilization and allocation; and leadership in global governance and social determinants of health, respectively. Key international institutions concerned with health, be they public, private or civil society, operate independent of one another and are accountable to donors not a higher level of health authority. They often have overlapping and duplicated mandates, with cost implications (Lee et al., 2009). Thus there is the need to improve coordination so as to avoid waste, inefficiency, and turf wars while building upon the current enthusiasm of new actors (Szlezák et al.,