Internal Combustion Engine Analysis

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1.1 Internal Combustion Engine

Heat engine are produced from internal combustion engine which converts chemical energy in a fuel into mechanical energy and actually available on a rotating output shaft. Thermal energy is produced from the conversion of chemical energy of the fuel to the thermal energy by means of combustion or oxidation with air inside the engine. The temperature and pressure of the gases within the engine is raised by thermal energy and the high pressure gas then expands against the mechanical mechanisms of the engine. The mechanical linkages of the engine convert this expansion to a rotating crankshaft which is the output of the engine. For the desired final use, the crankshaft is connected to a transmission and power train
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The engine needs to be served by both a lubricant system and a coolant system for the efficient achievement. The lubricant system reducing friction and wear by prevent metal on metal contact between moving components and the lubricant and component materials are kept by the coolant system within acceptable service temperatures. With approximately 98% of the energy contained within the fuel being released on combustion in diesel engines, the combustion efficiency of a modern ICE is well optimised and 95–98% in gasoline engines(Roberts, Brooks, & Shipway, 2014).

1.1.1 Type of Engine Cycle

In the basic principle of internal combustion engine, the internal combustion engine can be divided into many different ways whether types of ignition or engine cycle.

i. Types of engine cycle which is two-stroke and four-stroke cycle :

• Two-stroke cycle operates when the movement of two piston over one revolution for each
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By using dual fuel operation, the more emission from the vehicles may be reduced. DF engine gain high demand from the automobile industry since its environmental friendly. By using DF engine, it becomes attractive operating economic and greatly reduced emission. When the DF engine in the mode of operates, natural gas is introduced to the intake system. To clean exhaust from a diesel engine, DF engine may be a valid choice for the automotive industry in producing more clean vehicles with reducing more dangerous emission which are NOx and particulate matter (PM). Dual fuel engine has natural gas as primary fuel but designed to operate interchangeably with diesel as a pilot injection ignition source with only functioning on compression heat and unable with spark plug(Peter, 2001). In diesel engines, it has good combination of liquid which is the conventional liquid fuel merge with Natural Gas (NG) with the content of the engine is diesel fuel. This combination can be called as Dual Fuel (DF) combustion engine(Sahoo and Saha,

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