In this study with sampling period during 2010-2015. So the observations made is to use time series data and cross section. Types and Data Sources The data used in this research is quantitative data, ie data that can be measured by numbers. The type of data used is secondary data that has been processed from the previous party from the primary data collectors and in the form of research journals required and financial statements of manufacturing companies 2010-2015 period published from the Indonesia Stock Exchange. Data analysis technique The First Altman Z-Score Analysis (1968) According to Altman (1968) in The Journal of Finance, Z-Score Altman model is a model by predicting or classifying companies to determine the level of health based on the value of Z obtained.
As work is performed and measured against the baseline the corresponding budget value is “earned”, consequently Earned Value metric cost and schedule variances can be determined and analyzed, from these basic variance measurements the project manager can identify significant drivers forecast, future cost and schedule performance and construct corrective action plans to get the project back on track. Earned Value Management therefore encompasses both performance measurement (i.e. what is the program status) and performance management (i.e. what we can do about it). Earned Value
This concept was used by these researchers Spanos & Lioukas to illustrate that there exist a complementarity between these two perspectives. In their illustration, they divided the SWOT analysis components into two separate components one representing the market driven perspective which covers the opportunities and the threats analysis, while the other component represents the resource-based perspective and covers the analysis of the strengths and weaknesses sections in the SWOT (Spanos & Lioukas, 2001). Their purpose is to determining the relative impact industry and the firm specific factors such as; resources, industry forces, strategy, and firm performance, has on the market performance and also of profitability. The result from this SWOT analysis, illustrates the complementarity between Porter’s market driven strategy and the resource-based perspectives in three different relationships. Firstly, the two perspectives complement one another when we consider the strategy effects.
The cost per unit is calculated by dividing total cost from annual production. The cost is calculated for estimating the hike in annual production. The total cost is calculated by adding all the costs which are derived by multiplying the costs to the cost drivers. Bill of activities Activity Consumed Annual Quantity of Activity Driver Cost per Unit Total Cost Process Receivables 500 3.00 1,500.00 Process payables 200 10.00 2,000.00 Program production 100 28.00 2,800.00 Process Sales Order 400 10.00 4,000.00 Load Mixers 100 14.05
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (EMS) An Environmental Management System (EMS) is a tool for running the impacts of an organisation’s activity of the environment. It provides a structure of approach of planning and applying environmental protection measures. It is also a structural system designed to help organisations bring about their environmental performance caused by their activities, products and services. An Environmental Management System provides structure to the environmental management and covers areas such as training, record management, inspection, intentions and policies. Most organisations will have systems for managing their human resources, business purposes and finances as well as occupational health and safety and security.
STEEPLED ANALYSIS A STEEPLED analysis is one way of collating current information on a new development across different influencers and to forecast how those influences may develop over time. STEEPLE is one of the concepts that are used to analyze the macro-environmental factors that are used in business analysis. It is an extension of PEST model. STEEPLE is very often used with the SWOT analysis, which acts as an analysis of internal factors. STEEPLE stands for: Social: Social factors include demographics, lifestyle, age groups and education levels etc.
Environmental change and uncertainty, work technology, and the size of a company are all identified as environmental factors impacting the effectiveness of different organizational forms. According to the contingency perspective, stable environments suggest mechanistic structures that emphasize centralization, formalization, standardization, and specialization to achieve efficiency and consistency. Certainty and predictability permit the use of policies, rules, and procedures to guide decision making for routine tasks and problems. Unstable environments suggest organic structures which emphasize decentralization to achieve flexibility and adaptability. Uncertainty and unpredictability require general problem solving methods for non-routine tasks and problems.
Literature Review on Climate Change Assessment Techniques, Methods, and Models A. Introduction Climate change assessment techniques are important to link different studies with decisions related to management scenarios. These studies interlink different science disciplines to identify gaps and improve policy making. Assessments and study of different models will peruse progress development and identify the changing conditions Earth is experiencing with respect to changes that occur in human responses and the advancement in scientific discoveries. (1) To study essential information in the assessment of climate risks and vulnerability, several steps have to be followed: assessment, planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation (2).
A one season supervised multi location field trial of Hexythiazox on Brinjal was conducted under Indian climatic condition. The Hexythiazox formulation (Maiden 5.45 EC) was applied @ 25 g a.i./ha and 50 g a.i./ha along with untreated control. The Samples were extracted and cleaned up using modified QuEChERS method and quantified by GC-ECD. The LOD & LOQ of Hexythiazox was 0.01 ug/g & 0.03 ug/g respectively. The average recovery of Hexythiazox was found in the range of 84-92 % for brinjal fruit and 86-90% for field soil.
Market Environmental Analysis Environmental analysis is a strategic tool. It is a process to identify all the external and internal elements, which can affect the organization’s performance. The analysis entails assessing the level of threat or opportunity the factors might present. These evaluations are later translated into the decision-making process. The analysis helps align strategies with the firm’s environment.