A 6 mm diameter tube that is more than 20 m long was used for the PFR. This translates to a reactor volume of 300 mL. The conductivity probe was inserted into a plastic tube at the top of the PFR. This tube corresponds to the exit of the PFR. As soon as the reaction mixture leaves the PFR it flows over the probe and conductivity can be obtained.
Waste is any substance or material which is discarded when it is not useful anymore. Compared to the most commonly used methods such as recycling, waste transformation and source reduction in managing solid waste, sanitary landfilling has been identified as an appropriate method to eliminate waste in an economical and environmental friendly manner. However, finding a suitable area for siting a landfill is challenging due to incorporation of various factors and regulations. As the rate of people migrating from rural areas to cities is increasing, thus cities are expanded and therefore result in more waste production. For example, the Akure city which have developed and the number of waste has increased.
1.0 INTRODUCTION Landfill is the disposal of waste into or onto land. Today, landfill sites are constructed and operated to strict technical standards in order to reduce environmental effects. Landfills have four types that is sanitary landfill, municipal solid waste landfills, construction and demolition waste landfills and industrial waste landfill. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) isrequired, under the Environmental ProtectionAgency Act, 1992 to specify and publish criteria andprocedures for the selection, management, operationand termination of use of landfill sites. In the past, many of the problems associated with landfills occurred as a result of non engineered facilities and poor management.
The sharp increase in the volume and diversity of waste materials generated by human activity and their potentially harmful effects on public health and the environment, presents the need to adopt scientific methods for safe disposal of wastes and for the conversion of wastes to productive uses such as energy generation. This does not advocate for the generation of more wastes but places emphasis on the utilization of waste that cannot be absorbed through the institution of waste minimization, recycling or composting programmes, NEPA (2010). The aim is to focus on disposal of residual waste in a safe and environmentally‐friendly manner through its conversion into
Waste is produced by all sectors of the economy. Every person is a potential producer of waste. It is as old as the existence of human beings. In early times, in order to minimize the health impacts of wastes, transporting the waste out of residential places been the primary concern of authorities. After the end of the Second World War, a high rate of population and urbanization has brought an increased demand of urban and waste disposal land.
As an addition, Jakarta prefers to manage the waste using the landfill method, although there is also a waste-to-energy combustion method. The landfill is a practice of disposing of garbage by submerging it between layers of earth, to build up the low-lying lands. This method has done since the medieval era, by letting the garbage decomposed by the streets. This tradition leads to the plague that stalks every city. According to The Handbook of Solid Waste Management, it states that: Beside landfills, waste-to-combustion energy (previously known as incineration) is a method to recycle waste that cannot become an economical source, and also incineration is one of the most useful ways to deal with waste and to reduce the harmful potential by converting it to energy.
225 μl of solution G1 was added to 45 μl DNA in a 1 ml micro-centrifuge tubes and mixed briefly. The mixture was centrifuged at 15 000 g for 1 min at room temperature (Dragon LAB D2012 Centrifuge), then transferred from the micro-centrifuge tubes to collection tubes. The tubes were centrifuged for 60s at 15 000 g. The through flow was discarded. 300 μl of A1 solution was added to the column then centrifuged at 15 000 g for 1 min. The flow through was discarded.
This recycled wastes materials that enters disposal sites are providing the needed raw materials for industries. Affirming the recycling method is the best, effective and efficient method of managing solid waste according to the industries. Recycled waste materials will be converted from a useless material into valuable resources, capable of generating employment and bringing in economic returns. Recycling can conserve natural resources and yields environmental, financial and social returns, it conserved energy, prevention of pollution and the expansion of economic. More importantly that a small amount of, what is to be dispose contains raw valuable resources.
The benefits are obvious, a decrease in the amount sent to dumps while providing us materials we could export or use. We can also recycle the biodegradable materials that are thrown away such as spoiled food, cuttings, teabags, etc; and use them for compost people can simply buy from the
Lastly is the sanitary landfill. This system follows international standards that rely on open land area and wide to make holes garbage, which apply stockpiling-hoarding-compacting trash-compacting then covered soil about 60 cm or more. The provision of facilities and infrastructure are quite expensive. This method is recommended for large cities and