Li-Ion Battery Research Paper

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ABSTRACT
This review describes some recent developments in the synthesis and characterization of Li-ion batteries. It includes advancement in electrode materials including titanium oxide, lithium and silicon, cobalt and nanostructured composites. It also includes research in different electrolyte materials such as copper, Kevlar, and perfluoropolyether. The major goal of this review is to highlight the development of lithium batteries with high energy density, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

1. INTRODUCTION
Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. They give us the convenience of portable technology. They 've been in widespread use since about
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RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN LI-ION BATTERIES
Research in lithium-ion batteries has produced many proposed refinements of lithium-ion batteries. Ideas used have focused on improving energy density, safety, charge time, cycle durability, flexibility, and cost. As of 2014 few of these innovations had appeared in commercial products.
2.1. Anode Materials
Anodes are traditionally made of graphite. However, research is looking for materials that can charge faster and hold more energy per mass and volume.
2.1.1. Titanium Oxide
In 2015, Researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a battery than has the ability to charge quickly. It contained 4 times the energy density of a conventional Li-ion battery. This technology used a combination of titanium oxide and aluminum. The battery uses tiny capsules of titanium dioxide filled with aluminum. The aluminum yolk has space to expand and contract inside the shell. This overcomes previous problems of using aluminum as a battery anode.
In 2014, researchers at Nanyang Technological University used titanium dioxide in an anode and achieved 10,000 charging cycles. The battery can be charged to 70% in two minutes. They used a gel material made from titanium dioxide, an abundant, cheap and safe material found in soil. They developed a simple method to turn naturally spherical titanium dioxide particles into nanotubes. This nanostructure sped up the charging
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It has a theoretical energy density of 3,600 mAh/g which is 10 times that of graphite. However, a limitation is that this material expands with charging by 400% when compared to graphite which decreases cycle durability.
In 2014, researchers at USC Viterbi School of Engineering developed a cost effective silicon anode with an energy density above 1,100 mAh/g and a durability of 600 cycles, making their anode nearly three times more powerful and longer lasting than a typical commercial anode.
2.1.4. Nanotubes
In 2014, researchers at University of California, Riverside developed a battery that charges up to 16 times faster with 60% additional energy density. This was done using a 3D, cone-shaped cluster of carbon nanotubes.
Also in that year, researchers at Northwestern University found that metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) accommodate lithium much more efficiently than their semiconducting counterparts. If made denser, they claim that semiconducting SWCNT films can take up lithium at levels close to metallic SWCNTs.
2.2. Cathodes
Cathodes nowadays are made of lithium. This material is low cost and widely available. However, research has been done on other potentially replacing
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