Introduction Our world is composed of many bacteria’s’ that can either help or destroy us. Therefore, its’s imperative to learn and study them. The purpose of the lab was to put into action the methods that have been learned in the laboratory to determine our unknown bacteria. Bacteria’s can have different features, shapes, and or arrangements that help microbiologist determined their role in our life (whether they are good or bad for humans).
According to the series of test that my group ran for our unknown specimen, we had a match with the bacteria known as Alcaligenes Faecalis. This bacterium belongs to one of the major group of gram-negative bacteria (Phylum Proteobacteria). Alcaligenes Faecalis (Genus, species) is a rod shaped (bacillus), 0.5-1.2 x 1.0-3.0 µm, round with scalloped margin (colony configuration growth), motile (with one to nine peritrichous flagella), gram-negative, non-fermentative bacteria, obligate aerobic, having oxygen as the principal terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain (ETC). We consider we have a match with the species Alcaligenes Faecalis because of the following reasons: Fermentation tests performed (Durham sugars) were negative, which indicate that our bacteria use a different metabolic means for growth (non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria).
Of the Enterobacteriaceae family, there are genera that are in the normal human flora. Some species such as K. pneumoniae and E. coli are opportunistic pathogens which can capitalize on weakened host defenses and cause food poisoning (Baron, 1996). S. enterica secrete proteins that help aid in intracellular invasion and proliferation (Hensel, 2009). K. pneumoniae is a part of the normal human mouth, skin, and intestine flora, but can wreak havoc if inhaled (Ryan,
This entrée is the finest meal to go with the superb dessert. Key lime pie is the splendid dessert, right after you have a juicy French dip. A bountiful, piquant slice of Key Lime Pie was impeccable with homemade whipped cream and a crumbly graham cracker crust. The pie was very tasty and saccharine. The whipped cream and graham cracker crust balances the tartness of the key lime pie.
Readers not only learn why microbes emerge at these particular stages in human civilization and how they cause lethal infections, diseases, and pandemics, but also how microbes, with their dynamic interactions with humans, impact and shape human life. In addition, Crawford tracks human progress towards understanding the cause of communicable diseases and fighting against the disease-causing microbes with treatments and preventions, which includes antibiotics and vaccinations. In the final chapter of Deadly Companions, Crawford outlines our current situation with evolving pathogenic microbes despite the interference from modern advancement and knowledge. These killer microbes continue to exploit society; especially with poverty, travel, and drug behavior providing opportunities for our deadly companions to
Being able to identify unknown microbes from systematic testing is what makes the field of microbiology so important, especially in infectious disease control. Using the testing procedure laid out by the microbiology field we are able to identify unknown bacteria present in our everyday lives, and along the way learn a lot about their characteristics that separate them from other types of bacteria. Being able to do this is vital in order for us to understand why microbes are present in certain places, how they are able to grow and what restricts their growth, that way they can be combatted if necessary. These techniques for determining unknowns are also important for isolating and testing infectious disease microbes in order to prevent spreading. Another important aspect of being able to identify unknown microbes is the
Winnable Battle- Safe Food Objectives: Approximately 1 of 6 people in America get sick from eating contaminated food. Some people recover and few others may suffer from complication such as kidney failure, miscarriage or brain and nerve damage (10 Colorado winnable battles). In Colorado, there is at least 41% of foodborne outbreaks report and investigation each year. This is an enormous number that underscores the need for vigilance and highlights the importance of the food safety programs to identify foodborne illnesses (10 Colorado winnable battles).
The unknown bacteria was then tested on multiple selective and differential media. Growth was present on the MacConkey Agar and the colonies were the same color as the plate, which told me my bacteria was gram negative and did not ferment lactose. There was no growth on the Mannitol Salt Agar, and this told me the unknown was not salt tolerant and did not
Biochemical tests are the tests used for the identification of bacterial species based on the differences in the biochemical activities of different bacteria. Bacterial physiology differs from one species to the other. These differences in carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, fat metabolism, production of certain enzymes and ability to utilize a particular compound help them to be identified by the biochemical tests. Gram’s stain was originally devised by histologist Hans Christian Gram in 1884. Gram-positive bacteria stain purple, while Gram-negative bacteria stain pink when subjected to Gram staining.
Enterobacteriaceae - Enterobacteriacaea is a family of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are usually motile and consist of saprophytes and parasites of worldwide distribution. They can be found in soil, water, plants and animals. Q2I: Mutation - Mutation is an inheritable change in the base sequence of the genome of an organism. Question Set 3: Q3A: The authors hypothesized that colistin resistance was spreading by horizontal gene transfer as opposed to mutation.
After experiment on microscope under oil immersion, I learned that my Unknown is gram positive. Under the lens, the bacteria appears in purple color. Its morphology is cocci arranged in cluster. However, during decolorizing process, I put too much alcohol to the crystal violet-iodine complex making the color overly removed. That led to the result of my gram positive has slightly redish
Prokaryotic organisms normally have a cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall, and sometimes a capsule. Bacterial cells are most commonly either coccus or bacillus in shape. The cell wall is either Gram positive or Gram negative. When the cell is Gram negative, the cell has an extra layer of lipopolysaccharides. The Gram positive has a thick layer of peptidoglycan.
After a gram stain was done unknown #257 was identified as a gram positive organism because when observed under the microscope the organism appeared purple with cocci in clusters. The organism was also catalase positive which means that it produced enzyme catalase and bubbled when hydrogen peroxide was added to it. Three test were conducted based on the result of the gram staining procedure. Blood agar with a Novobiocin disk was chosen as well as DNase (DNA) and Mannitol Salts (MSA) agar. The Blood agar is a bright red, opaque plate and the streaking or the inoculation technique was a modified streaking for isolation with a heavy quadrant one.