The extracted organic layer was steam bathed to vaporize light petroleum which has low boiling point at 30-40˚C. Chromic acid is a more commonly used reagent for the oxidation of alcohols, it is a suspected carcinogen and generates hazardous waste. In green chemistry, innocuous chemical such as hypochlorous acid, HOCl will be used in oxidation, as to reduce the harmful waste. Green chemistry is the name given to modifications implemented in chemical manufacturing processes that ensure a safer and cleaner
Therefore, damages on the chemical constituents can be avoided due to SFE works under low temperature. Moreover, this fluid can be regenerated by adjusting pressure and recycled thus it is said to be environmental friendly extraction method. Generally, the fluid used in this method is carbon dioxide, CO2. However, this extraction technique usually requires a longer time in extracting
Distillation is a method that employs large amount of energy resources, is very slow, water recovery is in batches and costs a large sum of money. It is a chemical free process though water obtained through this process is not fit for human consumption as it lacks minerals that are necessary for human body. UV radiation process cleanses water that is free from chemicals but it is not fit for drinking. No doubt ultraviolet radiation process is economical as compared to distillation but this process does not clear the water from suspended solids and particles. Reverse osmosis is a membrane process that works on the same principle as nanomembranes.
The saturator is the place where dilution process occurs by adding water to it after that flocculating process happens or settle process . the settle process is all about adding a polymer to join with small solid particles then it settle down and in the top almost pure water is existed. The pure water is dosed into the line with out powder to avoid the deposition in the line. There is an extraction pump used to take the settled powder for recycling by adding water or to the sludge
1.4.2 Gasification The char gasification is the endothermic process where the char, solid residue from a pyrolysis process, is transformed into a gaseous mixture of CO, CO2, CH4, H2O and H2 in a reducing atmosphere usually composed of CO2 and H2O. As mentioned above that the process is endothermic process, so for that process some source of heat is required. The main heat source is from the combustion of the volatile matter, which is released during pyrolysis process. The addition for the oxidation agent is necessary for the combustion process. As mentioned previously that the thermal degradation of biomass is carried out in the presence of oxidation agent and should rather be referred as devolatilization and not pyrolysis.
The remaining glycerine in the soap is removed by boiling with water, sodium chloride and small amount of sodium hydroxide solution. Through this process, two layers of solution is formed. The top layer is the wet soap and the bottom layer is known as nigre lye which contained small amount of soap, glycerine and sodium chloride. The top layer is extracted and flash dried then scraped off the walls of the vacuum chamber. The soap chips are now ready to be converted into different products through various finishing process.
The sum of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) and organically bonded nitrogen in the wastewater is measured by persulfate digestion method using Hach method. Oil & grease (O&G). In the study, the procedure is equivalent to USEPA Method 1664, adapted from APHA 5520B. Hexane was used to extract material (ideally just oil and grease) from the sample. The hexane was evaporated and the entire amount of residue left behind is defined as oil and grease.
CO is a colourless, odourless gas which is also poisonous when inhaled continuously. In CI engines the CO emissions are far lesser than SI engines due to presence of lean mixture present. By less ignition delay, CO emission is also reduced by turbocharger as more oxygen is available for conversion of carbon to CO2. Biodiesel have more cetane number it help to increase ignition delay and gets complete
Sulfur being hydrophobic in nature is removed by froth flotation process. Generally this process is used for the coal particle size less than 0.5mm. The carbonaceous mineral constituents of coal being hydrophilic in nature, can be made to preferentially attach to fine bubbles and float to the surface of a dilute slurry, where they can be removed, while in contrast the low carbonaceous inert minerals of the raw coal do not attach to the bubbles . Flotation reagent cost adds up to the processing cost which makes the flotation method more expensive than other physical methods. Yet, to remove inorganic materials viz.
-Unfeasible for marine microalgae harvesting. -Generally requires the use of chemical flocculants. Electrical based processes -Applicable to a wide variety of microalgal species. -Do not require the addition of chemical flocculants. -Poorly disseminated.