The performance of a composite material system depends mainly on the interfacial properties of the reinforcement and the matrix material . The interface controls the interactions between the reinforcement and the matrix and thus affects the mechanical property of the composites. The stress transfer from the matrix to the reinforcement occurs through the interface. The fiber/matrix adhesion plays an important role in the load transfer ability of the interface . Composites with multiscale reinforcements are typically those which contain nano- and micro-scale reinforcements simultaneously .
In according to that paper, the size dependent and surface effects play important roles on the vibration frequencies of the non-uniform nanobeam. The effects of the surface energy and the size dependent were investigated on the vibration frequency
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. COMPOSITE MATERILAS Composite materials are engineered materials made from two or more constituent’s material with significantly different physical and chemical properties in such a way that the resulting material has certain desired or improved properties. One constituent is called the reinforcing phase and the one in which is embedded called the matrix. The reinforcing phase material may be in the form of fibers, flask or particles. The matrix materials are continuous.
INTRODUCTION Carbon nanotubes are the form of cylindrical carbon molecules and have such properties which make them potentially useful for a variety of applications. It has been used in many fields and other fields of material science carbon nanotubes are good conductors of heat and can also be synthesized as inorganic. For example such as electronics, optics, in material science carbon nanotubes are used as a minor s ratio in carbon fibers such as in Baseball Bats, Golf Clubs, Car Parts. As carbon nanotubes are good conductors of heat but as well as it is good insulators of heat along the tube axis. It is being seen that the simples one SWNT’s[singe walled nanotube] shows its conductivity along its axis 8 times more than that of copper which is well known for the thermal conduction and is has room temperature conductivity across its axis which is as thermal conductive as that of soil.
Recently, Nano silica appears to be one of the attractive cement substitution alternatives for researchers. There are some reports studied using Nano silica as cement-based building material and other studied the mix with other Nano materials. Compared to other Nano materials, Nano silica has a unique advantage in the potential pozzolanic reaction with cement hydration products. Due to its ultra fine particle size, it can possess a distinct pozzolanic reaction at a very early age (16). one of the promising applications of Nano silica is to promote the hydration of cement blended with fly ash, slag or other pozzolanic materials(21; 7; 22).
Running Head: FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CONTINUOUS ELECTROSPINNING NANOFIBER YARN 1 FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CONTINUOUS ELECTROSPINNING NANOFIBER YARN. 11 Fabrication and Characterization of Continuous Electrospinning Nanofiber Yarn Students name: Institutional Affiliation Abstract Nanotechnology is a quickly developing multidisciplinary field of research joining different divisions including nanofiber innovation wherein sinewy materials are created at nano scale. Materials in nanofiber frame prompt predominant capacities as well as give a technique to convey capacities to higher request structures. Electrospinning is an appealing procedure equipped for delivering polymeric strands having distances across running from nano to sub-micron level. Nanofibers created by electrospinning can be strengthened by particles to manufacture a composite with novel and tailor made properties.On the off chance that the particles utilized for the fortification are at nano scale too then the support impact can be significantly improved.
The name refers to its conceptual construction from polymerization of acetylene to give a chain with repeating alkene groups. This is an important compound as its discovery and its high conductivity improvement after doping helped to launch the field of organic conductive polymers. The high electrical conductivity property of this polymer led to the use of organic compounds in microelectronics (organic semiconductors). Polyacetylene research was targeted at using doped polymers as easily processable and lightweight "plastic metals." Although it showed to be a promising polymer, it had many disadvantages such as instability to air and the difficulty with processing has prevented its commercial applications.
On the other hand, carbon fibers (CFs) have been widely used as reinforcements and even EM interference suppressors, because they have low density, exquisite mechanical and excellent EM shielding properties [13-15]. Based on these backgrounds, magnetite coatings on carbon fibers is a potential way to further enhance the EM shielding properties of carbon fibers. Magnetite have been successfully coated on many different substrates by a variety of deposition techniques such as sputtering  hydrothermal , molecular beam epitaxy  chemical bath technique , etc. Although these methods offer good control over film thickness, morphology, crystallinity and purity, they require costly equipment and consume considerable amounts of energy. The aqueous solution-based ED method can be performed at a relatively low temperature and low cost.
APPLICATIONS The application of CNC comprises both for Non-machine tool and Machine tool fields. Machine tool Group:- In this group the CNC is widely used for Milling machine, lathe machine, drill press, laser, sheet-metal press working machine etc. Non-Machine tool group:- In this group the CNC applications includes welding machines (Arc & resistance), electronic assembly, tape laying and filament winding machines for composites etc. ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF CNC Some advantages of CNC are: • Time required for production is less. • Accuracy is high.