India was the earliest place where Indigo was produced and processed but the plant was also found in other Asian countries. Approximately 5000-6000 years ago in India, East Asia, and Egypt, indigo was known to color fabrics in a deep blue color. It was also shipped to Ancient Greece and Rome where it was considered as a luxury product. The name of this dye come from a Roman term indicum which means product from India. The oldest indigo colored textile of around 6200 years old, was identified in Peru.
The origin of Industrial Revolution in 1750 in England really paved the way for the evolution of today’s many technologies. Prior to the revolution, many goods were handmade and businesses were family based. However, in the mid-late 1700s, power converted into steam power and handmade goods turned into machine-made goods, making it easier to create higher-end goods at a faster pace at great demand. In today’s society, a cotton shirt may not be considered as a technological advancement in comparison to a handheld electronic device but back in the mid-1700s to early 1800s, cotton has played an important role in shaping the Industrial Revolution. The evolution of manufacturing technology and the attitude of mercantilism heavily influenced the
In 1755 he went to London where he found a professional to teach him. In 1763 to 1775 James Watt improved the steam engine he made it so that it would loose less steam. The Watts steam engine was important to the Industrial Revolution because it was a new and important source of power. The steam engine was more dependable then water or wind devices. Also steam engines could be placed wherever they were needed.
There is no exact time of the first application of gypsum or anhydrite in decoration in ancient Egypt, and it may be used from the Fifth Dynasty till the Roman time.  The optical examination of the paint layers shows a typical layer of white medium containing blue crystals and because of this white binding medium, the color of such layers is always pale blue. The macroscopic impression however may be a more intense blue. In addition, the artist probably wanted a light blue shade for a particular part of the decorations, in which case he has diluted the pigment in
Eli felt like this invention was needed due to the process of cotton was a long enduring process that needed to speed up due to the high demand of cotton. To invent the cotton gin Eli analysed what the slaves were doing to remove the seeds from the cotton fiber and make it more proficient. He went through many trials and conquered some problems, but later figured out the problems. The cotton gin was then created. The cotton gin was created in 1793 by Eli Whitney.
In this paper, I will discuss the history and chemistry behind these common pain-relievers. Beginning with aspirin, aspirin has the molecular formula C9H8O4 and the IUPAC name 2-acetyloxybenzoic acid (1). Aspirin is synthesized by the esterification of the phenolic hydroxyl group of salicylic acid (2). In 1823, the organic compound found in willow bark is given the name salicin, this extract was often used to relieve pain, but once formed into salicylic acid in 1853 scientists found it caused significant gastrointestinal irritation (3). In 1893, scientists found that adding an acetyl group to the salicylic acid reduced gastrointestinal irritation (3).
Pretreatment is needed to change the biomass macroscopic and microscopic size and structure and also submicroscopic chemical composition and structure so that hydrolysis of carbohydrate fraction to monomeric sugars can be obtained more rapidly and with higher yields (Sun and Cheng, 2002; Moiser et al., 2005; Tucker et al., 2003). Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass in cost effective manner is a major challenge of cellulose to ethanol technology research and development. Native lignocellulosic biomass is extremely recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion. Therefore, a number of thermochemical pretreatment methods
Natural Monopolies often occur in markets for essential services which require a ton of budget and expensive infrastructure. It is dubbed necessary for public utilities like Power Supply, Water, Railway Service, Cable TV, gasoline and the like. People believe that Natural Monopoly originated way back in the 18th and 19th century, however, the term “Natural Monopoly” was created only recently. In order to prevent abusing their monopoly status, governments came up with the idea of regulating public utilities. How natural were the early
C. Rouget was discovered Chitosan in 1859 when he treated chitin in boiling and concentrated potassium hydroxide. Rouget named this structure “modified chitin”. This derivative of chitin was renamed chitosan by F. Hoppe-Seyler in 18947-8. Currently chitin is mainly used as the raw material for chitosan, whose application fields include cosmetics, agriculture, dietetics, pharmacology, gene therapy, and
2. Biodiesel [1,2] At the early of eighteenth century, a novel diesel engine developed by Rudolf Diesel, a famous inventor, who first introduced peanut oil as alternative source to run on diesel engine in 1823 and widely use as the emergency fuel from time to times. However, the drawbacks from vegetable oils uses including fuel costs, shortages and effects on the engine efficiency in several properties were considered. In 1937, Belgian inventor who purposed a chemical process that can convert vegetable oils into fatty acid alkyl esters form, known as Biodiesel. Biodiesel (Fatty acid methyl esters - FAME) derived from triglycerides conversion into methyl or ethyl esters forms via transesterification process which is a reaction of fat or oil with alcohol to yield esters or glycerol.