It is well recognized that the FFA level of oil ought to be reduced to less than 1% previous to using the alkaline catalysis [23,24]. We used two acidic catalysts; sulfuric acid as homogeneous catalyst and MWCNT-SO3H as heterogeneous catalyst were used with methanol toward esterification of WCF. Some researchers used two step pretreatment processes to reduce the high level of FFA [25,26]. Based on their work, after the first action, the reaction mixture is permitted to settle. Because of inhabitation property of water toward complete reaction, the methanol and water mixture is separated from the oil phase.
1- Extraction method No. 1: Fifty grams of powdered aerial parts of portulaca oleracea were hydrolyzed by using reflux for 9 hr. with 300 ml of 2N hydrochloric acid then the extract cool at room temperature ,filter and wash the residue with 2N of ammonia solution. The residue dried overnight at 60ºC ,the final step involve the extraction of the residue with 250 ml of chloroform by using soxhlet ,the final extract cool at room temperature ,then filter and evaporate to dryness by using rotatory evaporator at 40ºC to yield (2.264 gm),as show in scheme (2-1). 22.214.171.124-Extraction method No.2: Fifty grams of powdered aerial parts of portulaca oleracea extracted by soxhlet with 500ml 0f 70% ethanol for 8 hr.
The temperature inside the flask was adjusted to 60-65 0C ) chloroform (3.25mL, 0.04M) was introduced in small portion with stirring by maintaining the temperature to 60-65 0C during addition. The mixture was stirred for 2 hours. Excess of chloroform was removed by steam distillation from alkaline solution. The solution was allowed to cool and then it was acidified with dilute HCl (1%). The acidified solution was steam distilled until no more oily drops were collected.
Molybdenum was separated with alkylphosphonic acid PC-88A by solvent extraction method, from the leach liquor containing copper, rhenium and iron among other impurities. The extraction efficiency of molybdenum was about 96% at pH 0.8 with zero co-extraction of other metals. The loaded organic was stripped with ammonia aqueous solution. One extraction stage and two stripping stages were required for the enrichment of Mo
Subsequently, monochloroacetic acid (60 g) was added, in five equal portions, at 1 min intervals. Heat was then applied to bring the reaction mixture to a temperature of 60 oC and stirring at this temperature was continued for 3 h. Afterward, the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtered solid product (CMCS) was thoroughly rinsed with methanol. The resultant CMCS was dried in an oven at 60 oC. The Mw of the produced
Agitation speed was maintained at 350 rpm which helps in complete removal of methylene chloride. Microspheres were then collected, filtered, washed three times with distilled water and stored under reduced pressure, overnight in a desiccator. Additionally, optimization of the process was done by selecting suitable stirring device element i.e. magnetic stirrer vs mechanical stirrer in order to improve the shape and yield of microspheres. A paired t- test was applied for final selection of the stirring element based on 95% confidence
• Iodine Solution Weigh 7.7g of potassium iodide into a 50cm3 beaker. Use distilled water to help the iodide dissolve. Swirl for a few minutes until the iodide has completely dissolved. Using a funnel to help, pour the potassium iodide into a 500cm3 volumetric flask, make sure all traces of the solution is in the volumetric flask. Using distilled water would be a good method in order to rinse the beaker.
The sample is dissolved in solvent , treated with potassium iodide, and the iodine liberated by the peroxides present in rancid fat or oil is treated with sodium thiosulphate solution often the number of millimoles of peroxide oxygen is reported , and the result is then half that of peroxide value. In case , the term “lea-value” is frequently used. Reagents: 1. Solvent: Mix 2 volumes of glacial acetic acid and 1 volume of chloroform. 2.
This ensure one to have a healthier lifestyle. This experiment determines the amount of sodium hydroxide, NaOH that needed to neutralize a certain measurement of acidity in fatty acid of a two gram of refined oil sample. NaOH played the role as a catalyst in this experiment. A catalyst is used to reduce the amount of the remains and help produce a larger yield of product. Furthermore, isopropanol that was added into the flask containing the refined oil sample is used to dissolve the oil.
c) Oxidizing Filters This method removes both iron and manganese by oxidizing and filtering them.A filter made of manganese treated greensand is treated with potassium permanganate forming a coat that oxidizes dissolved iron and manganese.The residue is then filtered out of the water. This method can be used to treat raw water containing both dissolved and oxidized iron and