“Our system allows for a more effective set of checks and balances to be placed on both branches of government” (Woodrow Wilson). In his classic essay “The Perils of Presidentialism” political scientist Juan Linz defines The Presidential System as a system of government where there is a separation of power between the executive and the legislative branches of government. He further states that in presidential systems an executive with considerable constitutional powers generally including full control of the composition of the cabinet and administration is directly elected by the people for a fixed term. The President is not only the holder of executive power but also the symbolic head of state and can be removed between elections only by the drastic step of
Essentially, the system fuses the role of the executive and the legislative. The French government is led by a dual executive system in which the president is elected directly by the people of France, and then in turn the newly elected president selects a member of parliament to serve as the Prime Minister of government. Typically the two serve in coordination with one another, with the Prime Minister acting as a junior partner, unless if parliament is in cohabitation. This system, while has a parliament, entrusts a great deal of power and influence into the President’s hands. This is not common with either Germany or
However, congress and senate can limit the power of the president. The current president of the United States of America is Barrack Obama. The President of Iran is the highest elected official and heads the government. However, the president has to answer to the Supreme Leader of Iran, who is the head of state of Iran. In chapter IX of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution, the powers of the president are laid out.
(Lim)The rationale of the new federalism is to empower the national government so that they can balance against the influence of the states whereby the power held by both levels of government are equal. Prior to the drafting of the constitution and the federalism structure, according to the articles of confederation, States would remain sovereign and most of the powers lie with the states. The articles of confederation created a loose union of states as a result. Since Delegates to Congress were appointed by State legislatures, the power still remains with the state legislatures as they have the ability to recall back the delegates. There were few limitations placed on State authority and the national government lacked key powers such as taxation, making them subordinate to the state legislatures.
A parliamentary democracy has a Prime Minister who is elected as a member of parliament and then as the Prime Minister by the other members of his party after they have won the election with the most seats. The Prime Minister remains a part of the legislature and thus has a hand in creating policy and laws at the same level as other members of parliament. In this system the legislature has the ability to dismiss the Prime Minister at any time if the majority of the members of the parliament feel that he is not performing in the best interest of the country thru a motion of no confidence which is simply a vote by all members present in the legislature. In most cases there are set criteria for those items that can cause a motion the most used being if a major policy paper or law is defeated. Douglas Amy (2005) describes a proportional government as a representative election where all voters are recognized and all political parties deserve to be represented in the legislative body in proportion to their percentage of votes from the election.
Since the Prime Minister and the Cabinet have been elected from the single / coalition parties of the majority or majority of the parliament, the legislation passed by the Cabinet will naturally be passed without parliamentary opposition. The pledges adopted can be passed quickly through the National Assembly. In the presidential system, there is no guarantee that the ruling party in the National Assembly will be able to pass the bill or policy pursued by the president in the case of the ruling party. For this reason, the cabinet system is a stable
These political systems range from direct democracies to totalitarian regimes, such as military dictatorships. Common systems in the modern world include democratic republics, monarchies, and representative democracies. There are also primarily theoretical types of governments, like a strict meritocracy. One of the most often-talked about political system is a representative democracy. This is a system in which representatives are directly elected by the citizens, and these representatives then make political decisions for the people, with the assumption that their decisions will reflect the general will of the republic.
In a single party government, the choice of ministers is at the discretion of the prime minister alone. In a coalition, the power of the prime minister is significantly limited. Officially Cameron is the prime minister, who has the ability to form his own government. However, in a coalition, the deputy prime minister has a bigger role than his predecessors. He too has a role in appointing ministers.
The people have popular sovereignty, they control the government. The Preamble of the Constitution states, “We the People,” as in the citizens of the United States. The people are the ones who decide whether or not the government is able to do something. Senators and Representatives directly represent their constituents. The people rule their country through their Congress members.
It had great views mainly, the process votes are easier and transparent since the one who receives the majority of vote wins thus, it portrays clear choice and outcomes among candidates. The candidates are allowed to run even without political affiliations (Independent candidates). The governments’ agendas and platforms are carried out easily. As stated by Linz's Electoral Rules for Presidentialism "Other things being equal, presidential systems function better with electoral rules or sequences that avoid draconian steps that might exclude politically important groups, for such an exclusion could undermine legitimacy". According to Linz's work there are advantages when it comes to presidential systems, "Great Choice for Voters" in the sense of two electoral choices is given by the executive instead of one.