Peristalsis Research Paper

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Peristalsis is a natural process of area contraction and expansion along the length of the tube/channel. The peristaltic flows of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids have immense applications in physiology and industry. In physiology, many body parts such as stomach, gastrointestinal tract and small intestines are the common examples in which peristaltic waves appear. The peristaltic phenomenon has great importance in the movement of food bolus in the digestive system, chyme motion in the gastrointestinal tract, transport of lymph in the lymphatic vessels, movement of ovum in the fallopian tube, passing of bile from gall bladder to duodenum, urine flow from kidneys to bladder, etc. This mechanism is also involved in plant physiology which is…show more content…
In industry, in many biomedical appliances are used the phenomenon of peristalsis, such as finger pump, blood pump machine, heart-lung machine, dialysis machine. This mechanism was first introduced by Latham [1]. He performed several investigations theoretically and experimentally to understand the phenomenon of peristalsis in the ureteral functions. After Latham’s significant works, Shapiro [2] and Fung and Yih [3] have described biologically and medically important reflux phenomenon. Vesicoureteral Reflux
(VUR) is the backward flow of urine from the bladder into the kidneys. The muscles of the bladder and ureter along with the pressure of urine in the bladder prevent urine from flowing backward through the ureter. Due to this reason, urine generally flows from the kidneys to the bladder. VUR allows bacteria, which may be present in the urine inside the bladder, to reach the kidneys. This may be lead to kidney infection, scarring and damage.
The analysis of the fluid flow pattern in a non-pregnant uterus is important for understanding embryo transport in the uterus. Fertilization take place in the fallopian tube and the embryo enters the uterine cavity within three days of ovulation. In the uterus, the embryo is
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In view of this, many investigators have presented many non-Newtonian fluid models have been developed by several researchers to explain the relationship between the stress and the rate of deformation tensors. Keeping these in mind, a number of analytical, numerical and experimental studies on the peristaltic transport problems with different fluids have been reported by several authors under different situations with reference to physiological and mechanical situations. In particular, several authors [7-13] have used many methods (like Analytical method, Perturbation method, Adomian decomposition method, Differential transform method, Shooting method, NDSolve and Homotopy perturbation method) to solve the higher order non-linear partial differential equations which are involved in the peristaltic transport problems.
In many bio-mechanical studies, porous medium has significant influence on the transport of fluids. This applies more specifically to vessels impeded by clots, highly perfused skeletal tissues, tumors and soft connecting tissues. Porous medium is also applicable in growth

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