Carotenoids are a family of pigmented compounds that are synthesized by plants and microorganisms Carotenoids are a family of pigmented compounds that are synthesized by plants and microorganisms but not animals. In plants, they contribute to the photosynthetic machinery and protect them against photo-damage (Rao and Rao, 2007). Carotenoids are synthesized de novo not only in all photosynthetic organisms, such as plants (including algae) and cyanobacteria but also in some non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi (Lu and Li, 2008). It is estimated that nature produces about 100 million tons of carotenoids annually (Rodriguez-Amaya, 1997). Carotenoids represent a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature.
It is estimated that total biomass of the earth is 560 billion metric tons (approximately) out of which 146 billion tons of biomass is generated by plants . This is a common term used by the biofuel industry to refer to biological materials from living or recently living organisms but not restricted to plants derived materials only. Biomass can be used as a fuel by direct and indirect means that is through burning and chemically or biologically converting it as a fuel. Biofuel and its History Biofuels are fuels that are produced directly or indirectly from organic material which includes plant materials and animal waste. Biofuels can be solid,
The main concept was to produce large amounts of fuel without emitting harmful gases. It mimics natural photosynthesis since sunlight, water and carbon dioxide are also used to produce energy. Scientists have built a structural leaf and an antenna complex to collect light and they have also discovered a number of catalysts that is able to split water molecules into hydrogen, electrons and oxygen. However, scientists are looking for a natural ribulose bisphosphate to capture carbon dioxide and for more financial support since the nanotechnology required in the process is costly. Currently, artificial photosynthesis isn’t ready to leave the lab but once it is completed, it can change how the planet is powered.
Originally, the reactants in Heck reaction are carbons that use the organic metal palladium as a catalyst to combine the carbons to form a new stable carbon skeleton. In other variants, the base reactants are different but still uses the concept of Heck reaction with the palladium as catalyst. This resulted in the ability to produce organic compounds quickly, effectively and relatively with ease while using less heat/temperature. This discovery built another strong foundation in organometallic chemistry which used different metals to bond with carbon of an organic compound. Generally speaking, this advancement in organometallic chemistry led to the easier production of more complex carbon molecules and organic materials that have been innovated into different fields of
Article review of The parable of Green Mountain:Ascension Island, ecosystem construction And ecological fitting by David M. Wilkinson Is it possible to create an artificial ecosystem? Does it functions and provide ecosystem services as natural ecosystem does? These are the possible questions that “The parable of Green Mountain: Ascension Island, ecosystem construction and ecological fitting” by David M. Wilkinson answers. Published in journal of biogeography, 2004 the main aim of the paper is to elucidate how ecosystem construction can function and possibly mitigate the challenges of global warming. Green Mountain is a manmade forest located in Ascension Island in South Atlantic Ocean.