Figure 10 and figure 11 show the results of the displacement field for mechanic loading and piezoelectric analysis for PZT and aluminium oxide model, respectively. Figure 9. Max principle strain field on aluminium oxide – Load = 19.6KN. Figure 10. Displacement field plot on aluminium oxide – Load = 19.6KN.
It can only increase overall efficiency of the working plant by 1-2% and emission regulations are not under control because there is no recovery of exhaust gases, so organic Rankine cycle is useful for recovering heat from the waste exhaust sources and can use in ORC this leads to further increase in plant thermal efficiency by 3-4% and harmful emission like CO, CO2, NOx, can be controlled. 1.4 Introduction to organic Rankine cycle Ideal organic Rankine cycle was developed to generate power by using steam with high temperature heat source. The Rankine cycle that uses different organic fluid as working fluid called as organic Rankine cycle. ORC system uses the same component as in the normal Rankine cycle with steam as working fluid, but it operates at lower temperature because of lower heat source and characteristics of the working fluid. ORC system recovers the waste heat temperature around 160- 180ºC temperature hence its beneficial in many aspects like reducing the electrical loads, economical utilization of heat and waste resources, reduces the emissions like CO,CO2,NOx.
Although currently methods of obtaining energy may not significantly alter lifestyles throughout the world, society needs to remain attentive to consequences of non-renewable energy and seek productive ways of accessing renewable energy to help improve the environment and conserve fossil fuels. For many years, fossil fuels provided a cheap and reliable source of energy, but in recent years, scientists began to question the safety and supply of the energy sources. Many scientists attribute the controversial topic of Global Warming to the high amount of carbon released from fossil fuels. If Global Warming concerns scientists about the environment, one of the options to reduce the amount of Global Warming stems from a transition to renewable energies. Along with the environmental effects of fossil fuels, rates at
The environment, as claimed by environmentalists, suffers due to the emissions of automobiles today. Many laws, and restrictions have been passed over the last few decades, restricting manufactures to specific requirements for their emissions, vehicles in general, and even the gasoline that they run on, with requirements for detergents and such,. Unfortunately, it is claimed that these systems don’t have big enough impact on lowering the environmental problem, due to the amount of vehicles out there. Luckily, since electric vehicles are becoming more affordable, practical, and appealing, the amount of problems associated with the amount of claimed pollution will
Several phase transitions into successive ferroelectric phases occurs in ferroelectrics, like barium titanate, BaTiO3. The transition into a ferroelectric phase usually leads to strong anomalies in the dielectric, elastic, thermal and other properties of the material [1,16,17], [1,5,6]and is accompanied by changes in the dimensions of the crystal unit cell. The associated strain is called the spontaneous strain,xS. It represents the relative difference in the dimensions of the ferroelectric and paraelectric unit cells. Fig.
The issues of global climate change and global warming have attracted more and more concerns. It is commonly agreed that CO2 is the most important and critical anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG). The predicted growth of global economy and world population in the near future will lead to an increased demand for energy , resulting in an even further increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration . In recent years, the amount of CO2 liberated by the utilization of fossil fuels has been over 30 gigatonnes. Global GHG emissions have doubled since the early 1970s, and the emissions would double again by 2050 without appropriate and effective emission abatement.
Chapter -1: OBJECTIVE the more general When designing a small temperature control system, the best choice for a refrigerator/heater element is often a thermoelectric cooler (TEC). The operation of these devices is based on the Peltier effect, which was discovered in 1834 by Jean Peltier. When an electrical current is passed through the junction of two dissimilar metals (Figure 1), heat is also transferred across the junction. To pump heat, a thermoelectric cooler can require a significant amount of power, with typical drive voltages ranging from 2V to 12V and typical drive currents ranging from a fraction of an ampere to tens of amperes. Because of the amounts of power needed to drive a TEC, power-interface circuitry is necessary.
When there is less demand for new products and fewer buildings are constructed, this will result in lower levels of energy consumption and eventually in lower amounts of carbon emissions (Frenken, 2016). Although when the sharing economy leads to more efficient use of assets and makes products and services cheaper (Frenken, 2016) it may not even lead to a more sustainable world, because of the rebound-effects. When something becomes cheaper, consumers tend to use it more often. According to Cohen and Kietzmann (2014) the success of companies, that make use of the sharing model, comes down to the use of technology and the internet that has become omnipresent. The information, communication and associated
The pioneer study investigating the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is by Kraft and Kraft (1978). Subsequently, scholars specifically concentrated on the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. Despite the fact that there is no agreement on flow of causality between electricity consumption and economic growth among scholars, the debate on causality between electricity consumption and economic growth can be summarized by four distinct hypotheses. The growth hypothesis also known as, electricity consumption-led growth, affirms unidirectional causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth. Hence, a decrease in electricity consumption causes a decrease in real GDP.