The first single-transistor DRAM cell (which could hold a single bit of data) was developed in 1966 by Dr. Robert H. Dennard at IBM. In 1970, the newly formed Intel Corporation released the world's first commercially available DRAM chip, the 1103, which had a capacity of about a thousand bits. This uses very small transistors, making it possible to store a lot more information on a very small area. However, this increase in memory density came at the cost of volatility as every transistor needs constant power to function. This best-selling product was available at a much lower cost and smaller size when compared with core memories and immediately started replacing them.
Abstract- In this paper we have proposed Baugh Wooley Multiplier with carry skip adder. Baugh Wooley multiplier performs an multiplication operation on signed numbers only. Most signal processing application performs truncated multiplication in order to decrease the word size. When direct truncation is used it provides significant savings in power, area, complexity and timing it can also introduces large amount of error in the output. so here in this paper a programmable truncated Baugh Woolley multiplier to enhance the speed and to reduce the critical path delay.
It provides an understanding of how a processor executes any program. Assembly programming is the prerequisite knowledge of compilers. Assembly programs can in fact run faster than programs developed in high-level languages such as C language. Compilers sometimes cannot exploit the hardware features of the processor, or when the processor provides specific operations that compilers do not know. Therefore, it is often that speed-sensitive amount of an application is written in assembly language.
• Virtual memory: It allows processes that may not be entirely in the memory to execute by means of automatic storage allocation upon request. The term virtual memory refers to the abstraction of separating LOGICAL memory (Memory as seen by the process) from PHYSICAL memory (Memory as seen by the processor). Virtual Memory Virtual Memory divides physical memory into blocks and allocates them to different processes. Virtual memory was invented to relieve programmers of the burden of ensuring that the program never tries to access more physical memory than the present; it automatically manages the two levels of the memory hierarchy represented by main memory and secondary storage. Implementing Virtual Memory is feasible due to the following reasons: • In practice, most real processes do not need all the program code or at least not all at once.
4.0 Primary Memory There are two types of primary memory which are Random-Access Memory (RAM) and Read-Only Memory (ROM). 4.1 RAM Figure 4 : RAM RAM is a type of computer data storage. RAM devices are used in computer systems as the main memory. RAM is considered volatile memory, which means that data stored in it is lost when we switch off the computer or if there is a power failure. So RAM is used by the central processing unit (CPU) when a computer is running to store information that needs to be used very quickly, but it does not store any information permanently.
Abstract: Advanced processors are being developed with a motive to revolutionize what the technology could do for us. In this paper, the evolution and architecture of a neuromorphic chip which was released by the International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation very recently is discussed. It is a latest development of a wonder brain that could make up an advanced processor. Replicating human brain using a very large number of neurons on a supercomputer serves to be a neurological approach towards the brain inspired systems. These chips may serve as artificially intelligent agents by working many times faster than the normal personal computers and so they could be embedded in advanced processors where they may impart the processes like
This makes C faster in terms of who will read the instructions first by the machine. Both programming languages have something in common for method blocks. These common features are curly braces and statements ending in semicolon. They too, both have a main method which initiates program execution. Similarly, control statements in both languages are fairly the same.
They can also be trained to solve that are difficult for conventional computers or human beings. The artificial neural networks consist of massively parallel network and require parallel architecture for high speed operations in real time applications. The use of Vedic mathematics lies in the fact that it reduces the typical calculations in conventional mathematics into very simple one. This is so because the Vedic formulae are claimed to be based on the natural principles on which the human mind works. Vedic mathematics is a methodology of arithmetic rules that allow more efficient speed implementation.
Statically compiled code or native code is compiled to deployment. A dynamic compilation environment is one in which the compiler can be used during execution. For instance, most common lisp systems have a compile function which can compile new functions created during the run. This provides many of the advantages of JIT, but the programmer rather than the runtime is in control of what parts of the code are compiled. This can also compile dynamically generated code, which can, in many scenarios, provide substantial performance advantages over statically compiled code, as well as over most JIT