The Biopsychosocial model (Suls & Rothman, 2004) is one of the earliest multi-dimensional models of the health field. This model demonstrates the interaction between biological and social factors in regard to disease analysis. It displays levels above and below a person arranged from global systems at the top and genetic systems at the bottom. In the Social and Behavioral Foundations of Public Health, Coreil (2010) describes how the biopsychosocial is more concerned with the biological systems within the human body and pays greater attention to this interplay. In the case study, Cockerham (2013) details how social conditions act as the ultimate causes of diabetes and diabetes related fatalities in the community of East Harlem.
Health is determined by several factors, some of these including genetic inheritance, personal behaviors, access to quality healthcare, and our general external environment. In a growing variety of research, we have documented associations between social and cultural factors and health. Many Anthropologist measure these factors using two forms of analysis. Biocultural and cross-cultural. The biocultural approach: defined as, “Perspective that considers the social, ecological, and biological aspects of health and how they interact within and across populations” (Wiley & Allen p. 9).
Health, according to sociologist Talcott Parson, is “of the roles and tasks for which he (sic) has been socialized” (Parsons, 1972: 117). This is a profoundly sociological view and definition of health. It does not contain any biological or physical health aspects, except referring to the capacity to fulfil one’s socially ascribed roles in society (Conrad, 1992). In heath, sociologists are interested in the institution of medicine, in particular, the process of medicalisation (Dew & Kirkman 2002). In Western cultures, the biomedical model is the medical paradigm used to diagnose and explain a person’s illness, corresponding to a malfunction of biological processes (McLennan, Manus & Spoonley, 2010).
Throughout history, we have seen many unethical forms of human research done, which have ultimately led to dire consequences (Brandt, Lecture 7, Slide 6). Today, ethical research tools have been put forward to determine when experimentation for human research should be allowed. Equipoise is the balance between two conflicting demands, where one demand will promote the welfare of the patient while the other demand will promote the advancement of medical knowledge (Freedman, 1987, 95). There are two types of equipoise: clinical equipoise and therapeutic equipoise. Clinical equipoise looks at the balance through the scientific community, whereas therapeutic equipoise looks at the balance through the judgment of a single physician (Weiger et al., 2013, 93).
Medicine is an art or a science It has several meanings. It could be used as an alternative word to drug and most of the simple-minded people look at it as just science, biology to be specific. Medicine can be defined as the practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. It could be also the study of human structure and function to be able to save the organisms life. But medicine is so much more than that.
Second, as I witnessed so much physical distress at a very early age, and later read about the health issues that arose in the aftermath of civil and military strife, I decided medical knowledge would be extremely important in addressing the needs of a globe very often torn by strife, which often results in epidemics, not to mention the casualties caused by weapons. My commitment to public health policy is based, thirdly, on both my personal experience of its lack, on my studies of the health of populations denied proper policies by their governments and non-governmental organizations, and on a deep belief that the third element that is needed for public health policy, particularly in health-related arenas, is ethics. D – Ethics as a guiding principle in the making of public health
He eventually proved the relation between the anthrax bacillus and the disease by demonstrating the source from where the anthrax bacillus was frequently derived. He also distinguished the anthrax disease was different from the other diseases that resembled like the anthrax disease. He was also the one that found a remedy to the anthrax disease, vaccination. In the early days, scientist has proved that once an infections attacks the human body, the immune system responds to the change in the body. During the immune response, the body renders the disease and fights back.
diagnosis of deadly diseases) until the occurrence of a specific event (i.e. death) or endpoint . Survival analysis is called reliability analysis in engineering, duration analysis in economics, event history analysis in sociology and medical researchers give it the name of survival analysis. Survival analysis is used because the survival data are generally not symmetrically distributed, so it can not follow the normal distribution. The survival data depend on the time and it render standard methods in which the survival times are frequently censored .
(Borrel-Carrio,Suchman,Epstein, 2004). This model was devised by George L. Engel in 1977 and is now used worldwide by physicians instead of the biomedical model. (Wise Geek,2014) With the biomedical model, physicians simply considered the pathology, physiology and biochemistry of a disease before giving a diagnosis. Doctors never discussed treatment options with patients, instead giving them one treatment option which patients were expected to accept. This model was devised in the mid-nineteenth century and was used widely by physicians until the biopsychosocial model came into existence.
They claimed that public health, community health, and population health are often used interchangeably. However, there are some differences between these terms. Public health is defined as the collective activities undertaken by formal structure of governments, as well as private voluntary organizations and individuals to provide the conditions in which people can be healthy. Community health refers to the health status as well as actions and conditions to promote, protect, and preserve the health of a group of people who share the same geographical area with specific boundaries, or have common characteristics. Examples of geographical area include neighborhood, city, country or state, where examples of common characteristic include race, ethnicity, occupation, or common bounds.