Task 1 M1 Describe the scientific principles behind each of the three procedure above. Vacuum filtration is a procedure when a sold needs separating from a solvent to react the mixture. Then the mixture of a solid is measured through the filtration paper in a Buhner funnel. The liquid is drained through the funnel into the flask. Equipment • Filter paper • Buhner funnel • Tubing • Clean solvent • Disposable dropper Method 1.
The grafting of SAN to a rubber component is the most essential part of the synthesis of ABS because it combines a styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer with a rubber substrate. The features of the ABS synthesized will depend on the composition of the reagents involved in the grafting process. This process starts with the abstraction of allylic hydrogens of the rubber substrate or by copolymerization of the double bonds in rubber. The grafting process always leaves a certain amount of ungrafted SAN. The proportion of ungrafted SAN in the final product depends on the conditions used of the manufacture of ABS.
Complexation techniques(1,13,12) Different methods can be used to transport out the complexation of the cyclodextrin with drug. approximately of which are described lower: 1.4.1. Physical blending/milling/co-grinding: Mechanical energy is used to mixture, mill or co-grind the drug and the cyclodextrin. 1.4.2. Kneading Technique: In this technique Cyclodextrin is initially taken in mortar then drug is gradually further into it and using small percentage of water it is triturated using pestle to get a paste like uniformity.
Introduction Dentin bonding or adhesion is the micro-mechanical union of restorative materials to dentin, particularly dental composites, via an intermediary adhesive resin layer. Kramer and McLean (1952) were among the first to use glycerophosphoric acid dimethacrylate (GPDM) to bond to dentin. They notice altered staining of the tissue surface during histologic examination of the area that is presently known as the hybrid layer. Over the last 40 years, major advances have been made in both adhesive monomer formulations and in pre-treatment of dentin to improve resin penetration into the tissue matrix. Definitions ADHESION Adhesion refers to the attraction between the atoms and molecules at the contacting surfaces of different materials.
CER Labs 2-3 Figure 1. Friedel-Crafts Acylation. Claim: An acetyl group was efficiently introduced to ferrocene by Friedel-Crafts Acylation (Figure 1). We isolated our crude yield while comparing 2 purification techniques: column chromatography and recrystallization. TLC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy were used throughout the process to identify ferrocene and acetylferrocene in addition to evaluating the levels of purity.
Introduction Chromatography is the technique of separating of mixtures based on their intermolecular forces. It separates according to their adsorption differences. Intermolecular forces make molecules bind on the solid surfaces; this process is referred to as the absorption. A molecule undergoes desorption process when it moves from the solid surface into the solution. The different rates between desorption and adsorption are applied in the chromatography methods for separation of mixtures.
The last method is plate culture whereby Escherichia coli are grown by streaking on agar plates in Petri dishes. Quadrant streaking method and S-shaped streaking method are used in this experiment. In quadrant streaking method, Escherichia coli are found to be in the form of
Elution was the main process used in this experiment; there are two types of elution isocratic and gradient. Gradient elution was used in this experiment. Elution is the process of extracting one material from another with the use of a solvent. The eluent is the liquid solvent and the eluate is the product coming out from the chromatograph. Colored eluates were coming out of the column and were collected in separate test
Equal parts of both monomers are combined with water in a reactor. This mixture is then crystallised to make nylon salt, which has specifically stoichiometric equivalents. The nylon salt formed then goes into a reaction vessel which is where the polymerisation process takes place in either in batches or continuously. Removing water drives the reaction n HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH + n H2N-(CH2)6-NH2 → [-OC-( CH2)4-CO-NH-(CH2)6-NH-] n + 2n H2O to polymerisation through the acid and amine functions forming amide bonds. Figure 5.
The tissue scaffolds are manufactured with many methods, and among them are rapid prototyping techniques, that manufacture the scaffolds in layers. The most common among them is the Selective Laser Sintering, SLS), 3D Printing and stereolithography (SLA), which seem to constantly gain ground in the tissue engineering field.