Rf is equal to the distance traveled by the substance divided by the distance traveled by the solvent. Since the solvent used in the developing chamber was hexanes—a non-polar molecule— the more nonpolar the substance was, the stronger it would stick to the plate. This means that the more polar a pigment was, the higher it climbed on the TLC plate and would therefore have a larger Rf. There are 3 major classes of pigments present in spinach: carotenes, xanthophylls, and chlorophylls. Since the solvent is nonpolar, we would expect carotene to have the lowest Rf, then xanthophylls, and chlorophylls would have the highest.
Based on result driven from various trials done, more of polyvinyl acetate and cornstarch are required to establish stable spherical shape ball. Less of polyvinyl alcohol and borate should be used since no evident loss of bounce efficiency was seen when a decreased amount of polyvinyl alcohol was used. Same was observed with borate since borate is just a pH buffer between reactants for proper collaboration of reactants. These conditions were practiced in trial ten, which was the most successful trial in developing the most effective bounce and resistance in temperature change without resulting in major change in quality of bounce. Overall bouncy ball in trial ten proved to be the best quality bounce due to its ability to withhold spherical shape under gravity, and temperature change.
1) Percentage yield experiment: First we measured 20cm3 of sulphuric acid into a beaker using a measuring cylinder, this will help us determine the percentage yield at the end of the experiment. We then heated the beaker containing the sulphuric acid using a Bunsen burner in order to heat it up for the copper oxide to mix with. We then weighed out 1.02g of copper oxide and added it to the acid and stirred it whilst doing so, we did that until the liquid turned blue, this proves that the chemicals have mixed together. We then weighed this liquid which will help us determine the percentage yield. We then filtered the liquid off which gave us the amount we obtained.
Acetonitrile at a PH of 7 (neutral) is added to each of the test tube samples. Mix the samples on a vertex shaker for 3 minutes and transfer to a 20 ml centrifuge tube and place in a TurboVap under 5-psi nitrogen at room temperature and allow it to completely dry. The dry resides are now put in 1ml of acetonitrile for testing (analysis). 4. Chromatographic Condition 10ml of the extract is now taken to be analyzed using a mass spectrometer and a liquid chromatograph.
2. The limiting reagent in the procedure is isopentyl alcohol. The reagent that is used in excess is acetic acid due to the inexpensive nature of this chemical. The amount of the excess reagent that was used in the procedure was 2.6 time greater than the amount of the limiting reagent that was used in the
Using the lit tea light, like a bursen burner, I flamed the mouth of the S. epidermidis culture. The sterile cotton swab was inserted in the S. epidermidis culture and twirled around to obtain a specimen. The entire plate was inoculate with the swab from top to bottom, to achieve a lawn of growth. The dry forceps was used to remove the antibiotic disk into the appropriate spot on the plate. This process was repeated for the all antibiotics with aseptic technique being used.
Then, we did reflux for 75 minutes. After reflux, we removed the reaction mixture from the apparatus and cooled it for several minutes. We transferred the mixture to the beaker that contained water (30 mL). We cooled the mixture to room temperature and added sodium carbonate to neutralize the mixture. We added sodium carbonate until the pH of the mixture was 8.
A citrate tube was inoculated with P. aeruginosa and incubated at 37 degrees Celsius at 24 hours. Once the time elapsed the tube was viewed and it changed from its green color to a dark blue color indicating a positive test. Based on these results the next test administrated was the motility test. A inculcating needle containing P. aeruginosa was placed into the motility medium using aseptic technique. The tube was then placed into an incubator at 37 degrees Celsius for 24 hours.
when the pH is 7, allow the solution to cool to room temperature. f. Add about 50 ml water to the solution and stir it. Filter the pale blue precipitate in a Buchner funnel.it is observed that the mixture filters slowly, the way to solve the little problem is to stir the precipitate with 50 ml more water. Wash the precipitate with water followed with alcohol. Place the mixture in a petri dish and let it dry in an oven at 140 ˚C for six hours.
Since only Alpha-Amylase worked in the experimental, there was probably bigger carbohydrates present in the flask, therefore, there was a lower alcohol percentage since yeast can’t digest bigger sugars. b. My results also matched my prediction regarding mean reducing carbohydrate levels during the mashing process between the control and the experimental. My prediction stated that there would be less reducing carbohydrate ends in the experimental, which was proven in the data table. c. My results also matched my prediction regarding the amount of carbohydrates left after fermentation in the flasks.