If osteosarcoma is metastatic, there is approximately 15-30% chance of survival. This means that the cancer has already spread throughout your body. Chemotherapy is usually the main treatment for this grade of cancer. In some cases, chemotherapy and surgery are required at the same time to help insure that the cancer is being treated/cured. If osteosarcoma is localized, there is approximately 60-80% survival rate.
Is a pen really mightier than the scalpel? One of the most crucial aspects of cancer diagnosis and treatment is to determine the thin boundary between the lesional and normal tissues. So it is important to assess an accurate negative margin and to completely excise the tumor for a prolonged disease free state and increase the overall survival of the patient. The conventional method for margin assessment is histopathological analysis which is labor-intensive, time-intensive and requires expertise. Another related method is the frozen section preparation which requires skilled technicians and pathologists.
At this moment in time there are no known biological effects to those who come in contact with the static magnetic field. Little do the public and many healthcare workers know the injuries that can occur if MRI safety is not adhered to. Due to previous injuries and bereavements involving the MRI scanner, the American College of Radiology formed a Blue Ribbon Panel of MRI safety in 2001. The first job of this panel was to review safety guidelines and procedures already
Some advantages of this technique are that there is no radiation involved, it is good at visualizing soft tissue, and that since it can visualize soft tissue so easily it can identify a multitude of different problems. Some disadvantages are that it is time consuming, expensive, and there is extensive training needed to operate it. The last type of imaging technique that will be covered is conventional radiography which can detect foreign bodies and changes or lesions of the skeletal system and is used when the corpse cannot fit into the CT machine. The advantages of this technique are that it is simple, quick, and cost efficient. However, it uses radiation, cannot make three-dimensional reconstructions, has a superimposed image, and it cannot visualize soft tissue
Data from clinical phases of study like tumor imaging data, survival outcomes would help to optimize the study by exposure-safety relationship, clinical response, dose optimization etc. (Bruno et.al, 2011; Venkatakrishnan et.al, 2015). To analyze an anticancer therapy by population modeling approach, tumor size modeling would be an appropriate tool and it has many advantages over ‘gold standartd’ RECIST evaluation. In modeling the data used as a continuous scale which helps to preserve relevant information and by population models efficacy of other treatment regimens than the one studied can be investigated. (Bruno et.al, 2011; Bender et.al,
Abstract This experiment was performed to determine the contraction of different serum proteins in the body and to examine and detect abnormal proteins in the body. While completing this lab, it is important to have knowledge that serum proteins separated often and using the agarose gel can detect the migration of the proteins. During this process, the components (proteins) will move at different rates. The purpose of this experiment was to detect the concentration of the four proteins and examine the serum table list to see if the proteins migrated toward the positive electrode. We had four proteins that were dissolved in the sample buffer which are: Cow serum, Serum albumin, Transferrin, and Gamma globulins.
Surface state determines biological molecule adsorption and cell performance. Preparation conditions as sintering temperature, compaction method, or porogens modify calcium phosphate biomaterials. To be aware of the interactions generated among cells and ceramics, osteoblast-like cells were educated on calcium phosphate substrates. MC3T3-E1 was worn additionally, these cells articulate osteoblast-specific proteins such as type I collagen, osteocalcin, or alkaline phosphates. Practicability and discrimination were
Infrared spectroscopy (IR) is a well-known method of drug analysis and has an exclusively great significance in investigations of interactions between drugs and excipients in pharmaceutical formulations. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) is a well-known method of drug analysis and has an exclusively great significance in investigations of interactions between drugs and excipients in pharmaceutical formulations.149. Excipients are believed to be as inert substance but they can have considerable impact on ultimate pharmacological availability of drug substances when added to a formulation. The magnitude of this effect depends on the physiochemical characteristics of the drug and quantity and properties of the excipients.150 Studies of drug-excipient compatibility represent an important phase in the preformulation stage of the development of solid dosage forms. The potential physical and chemical interactions between drugs and excipients can affect the chemical nature, the stability and bioavailability of drugs and consequently, their therapeutic efficacy and safety.151 The occurring interactions between drug(s) and excipients are discovered and proved by IR spectroscopy with the following important characteristics: appearance of new IR absorption band(s), broadening of band(s), and alteration in
For example, microarray technologies are used to predict a patient’s outcome. On the basis of patients’ genotypic microarray data, their survival time and risk of tumor metastasis or recurrence can be estimated. Machine learning can be used for peptide identification through mass spectroscopy. Correlation among fragment ions in a tandem mass spectrum is crucial in reducing stochastic mismatches for peptide identification by database searching. An efficient scoring algorithm that considers the correlative information in a tunable and comprehensive manner is highly desirable(Khalid