The imaging techniques can damage the live cells. Handling and labeling the samples must be performed carefully to avoid toxicity. Advances in microscopy instrumentation such as cameras, filters, illumination devices and using shutters to stop the excitation light when not in need, makes imaging live cells n crucial approach for today
Preparing of slide is needed to do slide observation. There were two slides prepared; simple stain slide and gram stain slide. A stain is a chemical compound used to enhance the visibility of a microscopic object or organism because bacterial cells are usually colourless; the
The Gram-positive cells are already stained and cannot take up the Safranin. “The alcohol/acetone in the decolorizer extracts lipids, making Gram-negative wall more porous and incapable of retaining the crystal Violet iodine complex, thereby decolorizing it. Dehydration of the gram-positive wall by the decolorizer coupled with it's thicker peptidoglycan and greater degree of cross-linking trap the crystal Violet iodine complex more efficiently, making the gram-positive wall less susceptible to decolorization” (Leboffe). Materials needed are Crystal Violet stain, Gram iodine stain, decolorizer, and the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli in
The preparation of the sample for TEM is trickier than the preparation for SEM because the sample has to be very thin and perfectly dry because it is subject to a very low pressure (high vacuum). The first step in this process of preparation is the fixation of the sample to preserve the structure as close to the living state as possible. Then the sample is dehydrated with ethanol and acetone, a transition solvent (i.e. propylene oxide) is used before embedded it in a liquid resin (i.e. epoxy).
AFM can be operate in 3 primary modes (1) Contact mode AFM (2) Intermittent contact (tapping mode AFM) (3) Non- Contact mode AFM Contact mode AFM In contact mode the tip of the AFM touches the sample surface through the adsorbed fluid layer. The detector monitors the changing cantilever deflection. In this mode the scanning speed is high. But the problem with this mode it can distort the soft samples and the effect of lateral and strong normal force may reduce the resolution of the image. In this mode the tip can also damage.
The eye level may have not been perpendicular to the meniscus of the liquid when recording a measurement and this may have caused inconsistent readings when repeating the redox titration. Several steps can be taken to improve this error. A ruler should be used to align the eye level of the reader and the meniscus of the liquid. Due to the dark intensity of color of the permanganate solution, a paper should be placed on the outer glass of the burette by placing the tip of the paper at the meniscus when recording the initial value and final value of the permanganate solution. Another random error that occurred is the false detection of the end point when titrating the permanganate solution into the conical flask.
In a normal functioning eye, the mucous coats the cornea surface and the surface of the conjunctiva of the eye and eyelids. The mucous allows the water to spread evenly over the surfaces rather than bead up like the water on a freshly waxed car. The oil floats on the outer surface creating surface tension to cause a stable film and retarding evaporation of the water. If there is not enough mucous, water, or oil, the tear film breaks down and creates a dry spot. Small dry spots stimulate the eyelids to blink; large dry spots are uncomfortable to the eye and cause a burning sensation.
Glazing in this case means it will be more viscous as if it is a paint-like liquid. Further into this issue, the safety and well control is also primarily important when drilling in a sour environment. This often happen due to a poor executed underbalance drilling program which always backfires and causes greater damage (Bennion D. B. , Thomas, Bietz & Bennion D. W. , 1998). Limitations of this method such as the depth and temperature during drilling is really a let-down which avoids more exploitation of the well drilled. Despite all the cons from underbalance drilling, it is still a growing technology with a really great potential to be fully utilized by industries in the near future (Ostroot, Shayegi, Zoontjes & Lovorn, 2007).
 Figure 8: Non-contact imaging (center) generally provides low resolution and can also be hampered by the contaminant layer which can interfere with oscillation. Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM) : Interaction types is electrostatic forces. It is used for electrostatic field gradients on the sample surface. Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM)
Firstly, the plant may not have been completely submerged underwater causing the bubbles not to have appeared properly and instead quickly escape into the gaseous environment at the top of the stem, which can be seen through the pictures of the set up of the experiment. This is a systematic error, as it would decrease the value of results as the bubbles wouldn’t properly be produced underwater. Furthermore, the area at which the experiment was conducted was near many windows where it would be very hard to control the light intensity as through the day, the intensity of light outside would vary quite a lot. As the light outside may increase or decrease, it could cause the Cabomba plant to be exposed to more or less light which would cause the number of bubbles to increase or decrease depending on the light intensity outside. This is a random error as it could increase or decrease the value of the results depending on the light intensity