In comparison with other conventional technologies, membrane distillation benefits from low operational temperature and pressure and therefore low energy requirements. In this process a lower energy is required due to working temperatures below the feed normal boiling point, so waste heats or other alternative energies including geothermal and solar energy are also applicable[7–10]. In addition, since there is no need to apply pressure difference between two sides of the membrane, membrane fouling as one of the most serious problems in pressure-driven membrane processes is less significant. The membranes in MD process are required to have hydrophobic properties i.e. low surface energies.
During the separation, the component in sample will interact with the adsorbent material within the pores of the stationary phase. This will cause the different flow rates for the different components and leading to the separation of the components as they released from the column. The HPLC is worked basically on the high pressure pump. The separation of HPLC can be based on the polarity, electrical charges and the molecular size. But it is more highly based on the polarity of the compound.
ABSTRACT Transmembrane movements are substantially necessary for cellular level functions in all entities. Understanding a part of this, membrane and passive transport was the study that was conducted during the experimentation. Three types of experiments were completed in order to demonstrate the characteristics of membranes and factors affecting the passive transport in cells. Larger molecules are too large to cross the partially permeable membrane was the result of the first experiment. Second, was ascertained the contribution of solute concentration in osmotic flow and the last experiment evidenced that the lesser the molecular weight higher the diffusion.
High-pressure processing (HPP) also known Pascalisation is a “non thermal” food preservation technique that inactivates harmful pathogens and vegetative spoilage microorganisms by using pressure rather than heat to effect pasteurization. HPP utilizes intense pressure (about 400–600 MPa or 58,000–87,000 psi) at chilled or mild process temperatures (<45°C), allowing most foods to be preserved with minimal effects on taste, texture, appearance, or nutritional value. Pressure treatment can be used to process both liquid and high-moisture-content solid foods. Although lethal to microorganisms, pressure treatment does not break covalent bonds and has a minimal effect on food chemistry. Thus, HPP provides a means for retaining food quality while avoiding the need for excessive thermal treatments or chemical preservatives.
Methods of purification – Reflux and Distillation There are many ways of purification however reflux and distillation are two widely used methods. Having a similar apparatus makes it simple and easy to use both methods together. Heating under reflux allows a reaction mixture to be heated for a set amount of time without loss of products, reactants or solvent. Distillation is done to refine or isolate the substances from each other. When preparing an ester (an organic compound) the reactants are heated together under reflux so any material that evaporates is condensed and returned to the mixture.
Introduction Solar energy is the widely used source of energy as it is a non-conventional source of energy; we can easily use solar energy for cooking food, charging batteries produce the refrigeration effect etc. Here solar energy is used for getting refrigeration effect. Temperature is decreased using solar energy and this drop in temperature is used for making ice and if the temperature drop is less this can be used for food preservation etc.Vapour absorption system refrigeration system belongs to category of vapour cycle similar to vapour compression system. In vapour absorption system use a liquid medium for absorption of refrigerant and it also known as a wet absorption system.Vapour absorption system widely used in commercial, industrial
The liquid solution can be either aqueous based or solvent based. In this formulation the binding solution is PVP solution is made. Step 3: Screening the damp mass into granules. Step 4: Drying the granules (in hot air oven at 600c for one hour). Step 5: Dry screening: After the granules are dried, pass through a screen of smaller size than the one used for thewet mass to select granules of uniform size to allow even fill in the diecavity.