An accounting memo should be a one-stop shop when it comes to forming a conclusion on an accounting issue. A company would reference an accounting memo to gather information regarding the transaction, accounting evaluation, and reason the position was taken on a problem or issue. The five critical components are listed below as a guide to prepare a professional accounting memo. I. Facts & Background • This section of a research memo is used to describe all the relevant background information to fully comprehend the needs of the transaction and the accounting behind it.
Earned Value analysis is a method of performance measurement. Earned Value is a program management technique that uses “work in progress” to indicate what will happen to work in the future. Earned Value is an enhancement over traditional accounting progress measures. Traditional methods focus on planned accomplishment (expenditure) and actual costs. Earned Value goes one step further and examines actual accomplishment.
Adopting the CSR principles involves costs. These costs might be short term in nature or continuous outflows. These costs might involve the purchase of new environmentally friendly equipment, the change of management structures, or the implementation of stricter quality controls. Since being socially responsible involves costs, it should generate benefits as well in order to be a sustainable business practice. A corporation could not continue a policy that constantly generates negative cash flows.
By changing product strategy, it needs to increase prices or lessen the range of products offered whereas, if company chooses to change strategic capabilities, it will need to have continuous improvement of value chain or improve product design. Sadly, adapting competitive pressure is simpler than changing strategic capability. An important lesson to be learnt from continuous process improvement is that changing product strategy competitive pressure is a short-term solution. This is because company has the decision to give up markets or increase prices so it may benefit in the short-run, but, majority of a company’s strength lies in a superior ability to contribute value to customers which is due to company’s consistency in improving strategic capabilities. Therefore, increasing strategic capabilities through continuous improvements is through activities that will decrease or eliminate batch-level activities, lessen batch-sizes and reducing non-functional differences between products.
In simple terms, working capital is the cash available for the day-to-day running of the business, used to settle regular bills such as wages and supplies, and also covering unplanned costs and unexpected expenses. Such an improvement in cash and working capital requires a systematic approach to establishing cash flow visibility and developing sustainable working capital improvements. This approach can be drilled down into five key areas: • Providing the business with an accurate picture of its current and near-term cash position • Developing and implementing cash-generating initiatives • Freeing up cash from operations through close management of the key working capital drivers • Establishing a strong cash culture in the organization • Having treasury systems and processes that support measurement and reward management against cash-based targets • Managing capital; maximizing profits • Good capital management ensures that the cash available to a business always exceeds its current liabilities, otherwise the business can risk running into problems associated with having a working capital deficit. In the short term this can damage the profitability of the business, and affect its operations. In the long term, poor working capital management can compromise a company’s eligibility for business loans, and damage its ability to attract potential
Demand side management has to consider the technical, organisational and behavioural solutions that will help decrease energy consumption and demand. These measures are implemented mostly for short term which saves the generator units from being started and shut down at short periods to meet the demand. The benefits of DSM include but not limited to the reduction of customer bill, air pollution, heavy investment on power plants and grid congestion , , . The measures also create job opportunities through innovation and technology to produce energy eﬃcient appliances. The tools used in DSM measures are real time pricing, time of use (TOU) tariﬀ, smart metering and web-based or communication systems .
This includes using less human effort, less manufacturing space, and less investment tools to develop a new product. Lean Manufacturing Pros Lean manufacturing aims to eliminate most if not all forms of waste. Many experts claim that by implementing lean manufacturing techniques and strategies reduce the manufacturing time. As manufacturing lead time is lowered, it is the hope that the operational costs incurred from the use of energy will also be significantly reduced. Lean manufacturing helps companies maintain and increase their profits and earning.
This will have a positive environmental impact as it reduces the amount of water and reinstate necessary to clean packaging prior to disposal. LiquiGlide’s patent-protected technology is difficult to reproduce, providing a differentiated and authentic package to any brand that licenses our
Value analysis: Value analysis is the study of products manufacturing, marketing and designed for the purpose of more cost-effective production. Value Analysis is one of the major methods of cost reduction and cost control. All the products of Yamaha are manufactured with the goals of fulfilling the needs of the customers in value analysis. As it is the process in which the components are broken in to different parts thus each part can supportively be examined for efficiency and effectiveness. The limitations are: Lack of motivation Resistive to change Lack of knowledge Lack of patience Value engineering: Value engineering is a method to improve the value of goods and services.