History indicates that war was mainly conducted by undemocratic countries. Furthermore, democracies always justify themselves for going to war and liberally for the reason to defend the freedom state and society. Secondly, Kant liberal republicanism must be spread universally in order to achieve perpetual peace among states. This will result in states having similar attributes hence decrease the possibility of war between democracies. Finally, in international arena, perception of others is important and will influence decision making of a state.
In philosophy, classical liberalism separately protects the freedom as well as property rights. It also limits the government’s power. During the past summer, there was news involving classical liberalism. The statements people make about it can be investigated, when it comes to
So, it is true that Kant believes if an action is not universalizable then it is immoral. Question number five is true. Kant believes that humanity is only for those who possess autonomy and rationality. Because animals do not possess those characteristics Kant believes that they have no rights to humanity and should not be treated equally compared to humans. However, Kant believed that cruelty to animals could lead to the cruelty of humans which would not be morally
Liberal is a paradigm which is a belief in the positive uses of government to bring justice, equality of opportunity, peace and looks more to the nature of state. Liberalism is a philosophy based on the belief about the ultimate value of individual freedom and the opportunities for human progress. Liberalism is talking about rationality, moral autonomy, human rights, democracy, opportunity, and choice that built upon commitment to the principles of freedom and equality. There is a long traditional in Liberal thinking about international relations’ characteristic. .
Democracy has long been considered by the modern society as one of the universal values and it has been used as a legitimate decision making method. According to Habermas in Three Normative Models of Democracy (Habermas, 1994), democracy is the institutionalization of the public use of reason jointly exercised by autonomous citizens. Deliberation needs to be freed of power imbalances in order to reach normative consensus based on rationality and equal participation. It is claimed that the goal of deliberate democracy is to achieve a just social order whereas a just social order is the social order which each individual and institution is constrained from committing unjust acts. This essay will argue that, in fact deliberate democracy is not a necessary condition for a just social order.
BGPA104 Political Theory Essay Name: So Ka Chon (Kasper) Student ID: S-B4-1950-4 Since 17th century, the idea of liberalism has been germinated in Western philosophy. During the Age of Enlightenment, it has widespread the whole European Continent and even to the “Thirteen Colony” where the later America is. Liberalism has the roots in the Western history during the time of the Enlightenment. After the American War of Independence and the French Revolution, liberty has been practiced in reality on nations since it was only a philosophy on the paper. Government that presents the ideology of liberalism has formed and accepted by the civil.
Kant offers that his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals “is nothing more than the identification and corroboration of the supreme principle of morality” (4:392). He maintains that people must use “practical philosophy”, or careful reasoning, in order to delineate the precise principle of human morality, which Kant later identifies and formulates as the categorical imperative. To understand this supreme principle of morality, Kant asserts the truth in two things: there exists morality, which regulates human behaviors and signifies good actions, and that this morality can be only understood through reason. Assuming that these are both true, it is not entirely clear what the ontological relationship is between human rationality and morality—whether
In this last principle, Kant understands that there is the possibility (or ‘capacity’) for anyone to act morally, and describes what this action would look like in practice. It explains why we are hesitant to try to put a value on a person’s life, and why most people would refuse to even attempt such a thing. For example, money would introduce a ‘conditional’ value that is not permitted in Kant’s view. “For other beings such as human beings whose rational capacities govern a will that might be moved by various incentives, temptations, and fears, the representation of something as good or required is not, by itself, sufficient for action. In such beings, the determination by their reason that some option is good or required presents itself as a kind of command as the judgment that they ought to act accordingly (even if they want not to).
Basic tenets of late-nineteenth century liberalism included constitutions, representative governments, presidents elected by the people with "legally defined" and limited powers, and political participation and opposition stemming from an idea of citizenship (361, Negretto and Aguilar-Rivera). Latin American elites adopted these tenets through the Constitutions they wrote when nation-building after the wars of independence and during or after the various wars of independence (particularly the Caudillismo period). However, Latin American elites dearly valued national unity and low levels of internal conflict in the pursuit of power. Essentially, they wished to abolish the caudillo method of gaining control of a nation through wars, insurrection, and murder while also creating a united, cohesive state for the purposes of trade. In this method, they differed from Europe in creating powerful executives (either de jure or de facto) to successfully unite the nation and quell internal conflict.
Liberal Democracy is a democratic system of government in which individual rights and freedoms are officially recognized and protected, and the exercise of political power is limited by the rule of law. The word democracy is greek, the word “demos” means people and “kratos” means power. The idea of liberalism first began in the 1600’s with John Locke as he believed that the people should be allowed to remove the government currently ruling when they have misused their power for ulterior motives. Although the seed was planted in the 1600’s, liberal democracy only properly took form in the 1840’s in Canada. Australia and New Zealand followed not long after as they began to use the secret ballot system to elect political leaders.