Interlanguage theory Before going to the other concerns, first we will have a look at the Interlanguage Theory as it is very important in the second language with relation to SLA. The term interlanguage was used by Selinker (1972) when he described the rules of structure at the Intermediate grammar level given for the learners of second language to achieve their target language. In spite of the inadequacy of the nature of this grammar, Selinker says that it makes a unity of the whole as this grammar is driven through many psychological mechanisms and it is not developed in the natural way. Adjemian presented Selinker's philosophy with some modification that the second language learner can use the rules of L1 in the L2 if the learner gets such
Figurative language is by using metaphors, irony or sarcasm to bring across the desired meaning without the use of literal language. Studies have used conventional and novel forms of non-literal language to test participants; former being common uses of metaphor such as “Time is money.”, whereas the latter is newly produced during situations which require the perceiver to process more carefully to catch the actual meaning. The neurological study of figurative language indicated the left hemisphere is highly involved, which is also the dominant mechanism of processing basic language. The right hemisphere has also shown to make a significant contribution to semantic processing, including non-literal language (Brownell et al., 1990; Winner & Gardner,
Dr. Rashed asks a useful question which is what makes the analysis difficult? He answers the question by explaining that the misunderstanding of the subject can be considered as one of the issues that may hinder the process of data analysis. He adds another crucial issue which comes from the ambiguity of question as well as the limited sources of data. On the other hand, he identifies the elements of a good analysis which depend on understanding the research question, the presence of enough data, understanding the
Furthermore, in case of a complex model, covariance-based approaches require an enormous sample size for precise estimations. In addition, these approaches are not capable of achieving convergence as the number of factors and indicators increase (Chumney, 2012; Lowry & Gaskin, 2014). Although, PLS is known to be a robust method when above-mentioned conditions are satisfied, its main weakness is originally it does not provide the overall goodness of fit statistic for theory testing and confirmation. Therefore, a global measure of model fit is not possible to be given by PLS estimation (J. F. Hair Jr et al., 2010; Hair et al., 2011; Tenenhaus, Vinzi, Chatelin, & Lauro,
There are slim chances in achieving the perfect translation, and the only way a translation can be described as a successful one, it is when it constitutes a real encounter between the home and the foreign, the self and the other. Translation is a process during which reality is constructed, countered and challenged. Through translation the authorial biases are upset and ultimately endangered.
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Definition and backgrounds of theories and concepts connected to this study are provided in this chapter. Reviews of previous studies on code-switching, bilingualism and computer mediated communication which are homogenous to this study are provided. 2.1. Bilingualism 2.1.1. Definition of bilingualism The notion of bilingualism is frequently connected to the idea of code-switching since a person should have ability to speak using two or more than one variety.
Similarly word summarization is also just like a text summarization in which we will give the text as a paragraph and from that text we can find the word summary using Word Sense Disambiguation technique. 1.3 Word sense disambiguation Word Sense Disambiguation is a challenging technique in Natural Language Processing. There are some words in the natural languages which can cause ambiguity about the sense of the word. Those words are called polysemous words. Word sense disambiguation (WSD) is the solution to the problem.
Primarily, the centre of the research on Japanese cultural identity for this paper will be of two very different Japanese cultural identity groups; mixed race Japanese citizens and a selection of Japanese subcultures. Although both of these groups have a definite connection with the English language, the nature of this connection is vastly different. This connection also is heavily subjected to prejudice and other’s attitudes regarding an identity, all of which will be elaborated on in the appropriate subsections. It is hoped that through choosing these two particular case studies, a definite inherentness of the English language in Japanese cultural identity can be proved. 4.2.1.
It is argued that it has a facilitative effect on text understanding and is regarded to be related to essay coherence. The aim of this study is to investigate the cohesive devices in each one of the subjects’ compositions. 3.2. Research Type and Methodology The present study employed a combination of descriptive-analytical (survey) research techniques, and a quasi-experimental research design with one intact group. This was mainly because it was almost impossible to randomly select from population to sample.