Economic growth means an increase in real GDP. This increase in real GDP means there is an increase in the value of national output / national expenditure. The benefits of economic growth include: Higher average incomes. This enables consumers to enjoy more goods and services and enjoy better standards of living.
Secondly, purchasing power od households on fixed income decline, as inflation tends to result in more unequal distribution of income as those on lower incomes find their wages do not rise as quickly as those on higher incomes. In times of high inflation household tend to purchase real assets that retain their real value since their prices rise faster than the inflation rate. Finally, another negative impact is the income tax earners suffer from fiscal drag pay rises to combat inflation put them into higher marginal tax brackets. This means as employees’ nominal wages increase with inflation their real wage (purchasing power of nominal wages) may remain constant. Since inflation reduces the incentive for households to save, it causes a shortage of savings for firms to borrow.
1.Definition of the macroeconomic variable a) Economic Growth A rise in the capacity of an economy to produce goods and services, compared from one period of time to another. Economic growth can be considered in nominal terms, which contain inflation, or in real terms, which are adjusted for inflation. The increase of an economy is thought of not only as an increase in productive capacity but also as a development in the quality of life to the people of that economy. Increase in the capital stock, advances in technology, and improvement in the quality and level of literacy are considered to be the principalcauses of economic growth. Two main factors of Economic growth are an increase in aggregate demand and aggregate supply.
Trading company must be profitable. Not only that, all the businesses produce lots of product and because of employment rate is higher, economics growth rapidly. To prevent saving money in a bank, the central bank conducts a monetary policy and low interest rate encourage people to spend more money. Fiscal policy is conducted too. As was When Government expenditure cut for trying to stop stagflation that causes of economic down turn in stagflation, it is important to stimulate the supply side for that company have to create a new effective machine and reduce cost of manufacturing then aggregate demand of other countries will up.
An expansion of the economy brings about a corresponding increase in quantity demanded for normal goods while a contraction in the economy causes a decline in the demand for the normal goods. On the contrary, the demand for inferior goods is not recurrent (Pech 24). The more the positive value for income elasticity of demand for a product is, the more sensitive consumer demand is to the fluctuations in national income. Banks can take advantage of the income elasticity of demand by analyzing the patterns in demand for money by its customers as their real income changes.
It is determined by supply side factors. Cost-push inflation can be caused by higher price of commodities, imported inflation, higher wages, higher taxes and higher food prices (Economics Help, 2011). Demand-pull inflation happens when there is an increase in the price of goods and services when demand increases too much that it outpaces supply (US Economy, 2015). Sometimes people refer it as “too much money chasing too few goods”. When too much people are
The economic logic behind protectionist immigration agendas is that an increased population increases the labor supply and stops there. In this scenario, the equilibrium wage rate of labor supply and labor demand would be lower than the pre-immigration equilibrium wage rate, and the logic holds. Instead, separating scenario from real-world application would present previously unaccounted for effects. Being so, what actually occurs is as follows. As before, as the population increases with immigration, the labor supply would also increase, but the increased population would also lead to increased consumer spending and demand (i.e. money flowing into the US economy).
Influence of inflation on growth velocity of the money explained due to the fact that buyers increase their purchases in order to protect themselves from the economic losses owing to the decrease in purchasing power of money. The coefficient of monetization The important indicator of status of money supply step forth the coefficient of monetization that is equal to: C=M2/GDP The coefficient of monetization permits to answer if there is enough money in circulation. It shows how much GDP provided with money (or how much money is there for $ GDP).
Inflation is divided into two categories Cost-push and Demand pull inflation: Cost-push inflation means that prices have been hiked up by increases in costs of any of the four factors of production such as (labor, capital, land or entrepreneurship) when companies are already running at maximum production capability. With higher production costs and productivity at it maximum, companies cannot maintain profits by producing the same amounts of goods and services. As a consequence, the increased costs are passed on to customers, causing a rise in the overall price level (inflation). Demand-pull inflation occurs when there is an increase in collective demand, categorized by the four sections of the macro economy: governments, households, businesses and foreign buyers.
If interest rates increase, it will become attractive to invest money in that country because investors will get a higher return from savings in that country’s banks. Therefore the currency demand will rise. But higher interest rates will have a negative impact on the country. This is due to the reduction in purchasing power of the consumer while the loan borrowers have to pay more interest.
Second, Reagan cut taxes for corporations and the wealthy-class. The theory of Reaganomics is tax relief for the rich would enable them to spend more money, save money in banks, and make investments. The additional spending from the rich, was supposed to help stimulate the economy and create new jobs. However, the opposite occurred and America suffered a deep recession in 1981-1982. In addition, the high interest rates caused the value of the dollar to rise on the international exchange market, thus American exports decreased and imports increased.
Governments often disagree on the adjustment of local, state, and national economic policies. Measures implemented by these governments in relation to the collection of revenue and public expenditure are referred to as fiscal policies. Fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection, which is derived from income tax and expenditure, to impact the fluctuating economy. Some may opt to promote expansionary fiscal policy, while certain show more interest in contractionary fiscal policy. While there are many advantages to both, certain key factors set them apart from each other.