The microalgae are usually cultivated in open ponds or photobioreactors systems. The cultivation process requires a suitable amount of carbon dioxide, light, water and other nutrients, which are essential to facilitate the photosynthetic process. Microalgal cultivation produces the biomass containing high-value consumer products and simultaneously captures the greenhouse gas CO2. (Rasmussen
Sugar cane and starch crops like Corn and Wheat are few of the examples. A litre of ethanol contains about two-thirds as much energy as a litre of gasoline . (3) Biogas. Biogas is a biofuel produced from the anaerobic fermentation of carbohydrates in plant material or waste like food peelings or manure by
Biomass Energy Methods: There are five biomass energy methods: 1- Direct combustion: This method refers to the burning of wood scarps and grasses. 2- Chemical conversion: biodiesel is a liquid fuel that can be used in engines instead of gasoline and has less pollution. We can get biodiesel from converting canola oils and soybean using a certain type of chemical during the process of chemical conversion. 3- Pyrolysis: The third method refers to heating biomass in order to get useful gases such as hydrogen and methane. Hydrogen is very important in producing water.
For instance: the production of biodiesel from corn may raise its demand so, it might become more expensive which may deprive poor people from having it. As more than 95% of biodiesel is produced using palatable oil, there have been numerous cases that this may offer ascent to further financial issues. By changing over eatable oils into biodiesel, sustenance assets are being utilized as auto fills. It is accepted that huge scale generation of biodiesel from palatable oils may achieve a worldwide awkwardness in the nourishment supply-and-interest business. As of late, earthy people have refered to the antagonistic effect on the planet of biodiesel generation from consumable oils, particularly deforestation and the devastation of biological communities.
Algae have recently received a lot of attention as a new biomass source for the production of renewable energy. Some of the main characteristics which set algae apart from other biomass sources are that algae (can) have a high biomass yield per unit of light and area, can have a high oil or starch content, do not require agricultural land, fresh water is not essential and nutrients can be supplied by wastewater and CO2 by combustion gas. A microalga is a class of plants distributed widely in both terrestrial and marine environments. Currently more than 40 different species of microalgae were studied for multiple purposes such as fresh water environmental protection and biomass production content analysis. Because autotrophic microalgae produce
However, it is well accepted that glycerol mass formation is currently achieved through the transesterification process due to the dramatic increase in the capacity of biodiesel production . Biodiesel is a biodegradable and renewable fuel that comprises of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of glycerides with methanol. With the increasing in worldwide biodiesel production, resulting in a major concern on the by-product generated from of biodiesel produced by transesterification process. The market for the glycerol by-product of biodiesel production (transesterification process) was rapidly becoming saturated and created excess glycerol of less value as its supply exceeded its demand. Palm oil industry of Malaysia has historically made the country a major player in the biodiesel production that directly influences glycerol market.
Currently, biodiesel is much more expensive than petroleum diesel, the major reason for that is high price of the purified feedstock. Commercially, most of the biodiesel currently synthesized utilizes edible grade feedstocks such as soybean oil in Brazil, rape seed oil in Europe and United States, palm oil in Malaysia and Indonesia, -depending on the relative abundance of the feedstock. The value of soybean and palm oil as a food product makes production of a cost effective biofuel very challenging. However, there exist many low cost resources such as waste cooking oil, animal fats and non-edible vegetable oil such as Jatropha curcas that could be transformed into biodiesel. The problem associated with processing these low-cost raw materials is that they often contain large amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs), moisture and solid residues that cannot be converted into biodiesel using an alkaline catalyst.
According to (Carlos A. Guerrero F et. al), biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil and animals fats that undergoes a chemical reaction known as transesterification. The process breaks down the oils molecules into constituent molecules producing biodiesel as the main and glycerin as the byproduct. (Khemani, 2011). Biodiesel uses the same properties of diesel as fuel for cars.
It also has excellent scalability to commercial production. The method will increase the energy efficiency of ethanol fermentation and catalytic fuel production processes through decreased size-reduction energy requirements and maximized enzymatic cellulose conversion in a short period of time. This increase in efficiency will allow biofuels and other bioproducts to become economically competitive with petroleum derived fuels and