Researches show that meta-cognitive also has positive effect both on oral ability and other learning ability like reading through using prediction, inferring and making connections to one 's life. They also believe that if students actively engages in particular meta-cognitive strategies like mental image, and predicting so they would be able to monitor and evaluate their learning activity. Eslami Rasekh (2003) states learners should be aware of different strategies that can help them in the process of learning, teachers who teach these strategies to their learners are more aware of their students ' needs. By using appropriate vocabulary learning strategies learners will be able to acquire lots of vocabs by meaningful reading, speaking, and writing. So we can see although Role-Play technique is a good way for improving the ability of speaking in foreign language learners but it may have some disadvantageous, there may be lack of the interest, lack of confidence, and fearing of making errors, in this case learners do not feel relax and there would be resistance on the side of them for speaking, but there are some techniques which can resolve this problems, metacognitive approaches are appropriate in these
Research has demonstrated that students learn best when the educational process is purposeful, integrated, and collaborative. In most cases, faculties have learning goals for the students or courses they teach. However, these may not be made explicit. The assessment process involves articulating your learning goals, so that they may be communicated to others, and evaluated for continued improvement. Helps in having explicit goals also facilitates the integration of courses and programs to identify areas of omission or redundancy, and allows you to document success.
Classes where students have opportunities to communicate with each other help students effectively construct their knowledge (Brooks, 1993). So, learning is an interactive process in which the learner develops his or her own understanding by assembling facts, experiences, and practices. In addition, interaction is closely linked to successful learning as interacting with others can help students clarify the concepts, improve problem-solving, and enhance retention. Furthermore, increasing students’ opportunity to talk with one another and discuss their ideas increases their ability and to argue their opinions persuasively and respectfully (Weber et. al., 2008).
o Sharing learning goals: teachers give students an opportunity to get involved in what they are learning through discussing and deciding the criteria for success, which they can then use to recognize proof of improvement. Hence, information about learning objectives as well as success criteria needs to be presented in clear, explicit language which students can understand. Fontana & Fernandez (1994) concluded that “students who understand the learning objectives and assessment criteria and have opportunities to reflect on their work show greater improvement than those who do not”. o Questioning: is an important element in formative assessment. “The quality of the questions has a great effect on the quality of the assessment.
Teachers conduct their assessment work based on various strategies and tools with one common objective, which is to improve students’ performance. Based on the article, “Formative Assessment That Truly Informs Instruction”, these strategies and tools can be grouped into four types: Observations, Conversations, Student Self-Evaluation, and Artifacts of Learning. For observations strategy, a teacher needs to carefully observe the way a student engage in language use and learning. Through the observations, the teacher is able to identify the student’s strengths and challenges. Then, the teacher can plan supportive classroom learning more effectively with the aim to improve student’s academic performance.
Elaborative Strategies (For example forming a mental image, notes, paraphrased or a new material) A elaborative strategy is where the student uses elements of what is learned and expanded. The student expands information goal associated with other information (for example, creating a sentence, making an analogy). It connects information with the information, to learn that the students already know. This connection eliminates the burden of working memory because the connections create learning and memory efficiency. As this strategies create links or bridges, with information that is learned can be powerful tools for teaching.
Intani (2015) also stated that the effect of Treffinger learning model implementation included: a. Growing positive character inside the students, discipline, responsibility, cooperation harmony, tolerance, bravery of expressing opinion, and self-confidence b. The students were getting sensitive to social problems and could solve them c. Ability of thinking
With that students tend to realize that learning English is interesting and enjoyable with their participation which is the key to maintain their motivation. Second, involving new and effective technique. The use of Internet, educational software and other innovative material can stimulate students’ intrinsic motivation. Third, high expectation and using reward appropriately. It can be used as extrinsic motivation for the student.
Introduction Integrating creative activities in English language teaching encourages learners to practice an important element in language learning which lies behind personal growth and the development of culture and society. Creativity is a process that promotes a more open, curious and questioning relationship to others and to the world. The first part of this research paper explains Visible Thinking and its link to creative thinking. Then a more practical part follows with suggestions on how the approach is useful in the English classroom. Visible Thinking Visible Thinking is a research based approach that looks into how we can encourage learners’ engagement and understanding.
Build an inclusive, positive, and stimulating classroom environment, e.g., by exhibiting a positive and enthusiastic approach to learning and by modeling thinking skills and habits of mind. 2. Construct teacher-driven metacognitive activities initially, with an emphasis on developing awareness of metacognitive processes, but also use the gradual release model as a guide so that students become capable of effectively selecting, using, monitoring, and evaluating their use of these strategies (Graham and Harris, 1993). 3. Create opportunities for students to talk about their thinking and to build a thinking vocabulary.