However, all proteins are constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids linked in unbranched polymers. The covalent bond that exists between amino acids is called peptide bond, hence a polymer of amino acids is named polypeptide. A protein is a biological functional molecule made up of one or more polypeptides which is folded and coiled into unique three-dimensional structure. In laboratory, it is important to measure the concentration of proteins for research investigations. Biuret test is adopted to quantify proteins in fluid by using a spectrophotometer.
Proteins are complex macromolecules that are formed by elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Proteins composed of one or more polypeptide chains of amino acids. The main functions of proteins are to structure, support, protect, make movement, catalyst, transport and make hormones in human body. In the structural role, collagen and elastin provide support for connective tissue. Actin and myosin are proteins that involved in muscle contraction and movement.
In order for an enzyme to carry out these functions it must work in conjunction with molecules such as substrates that are specific for each type of protein, and Pilar Feldbush General Cell Biology February 12, 2015 Lab Section K Lab 5: Enzymes coenzymes which aid in transporting the substrate to the protein’s “active site” (a hole or groove designed to fit only a specific type of substrate). Once attached, the protein can now move on to its destination, whether it be to the bloodstream, digestive system, or any other organ within the body. The ability for the substrate to attach to the enzyme is what allows the enzyme to hold and maintain it’s shape, which in turn directly impacts it’s function. The shape of an enzyme can be altered through the process of denaturation (the unraveling of the protein). Denaturing occurs when an enzyme is exposed to higher temperatures of heat and causing it to break the weak bonds that hold the molecule together.
The cycle relative threshold method (Crt method) was applied. The expression of target genes across the samples was calculated using the equation ΔCrt, in which [ΔCrt = target gene Crt – the mean of reference genes Crt]. A lower ΔCrt indicates higher gene
Protein-protein interaction refers to the physical contact between two or more proteins that result in a biological function. These interaction often take the form of molecular machines that carry out a diverse number of essential physiochemical processes. Specific interactions between the proteins of host and pathogen forms the primary basis of infection. The proteins involved in such interactions are referred to as ‘host-pathogen interactomes’. 1.2.2 Significance of PPI: Surface proteins of both the host and pathogen that are involved in such interaction play a key role in the initiation of infection.
SOPHIA COLLEGE Protein-DNA Interaction MAYUR GAIKWAD 05/05/2015 INTRODUCTION Protein–DNA interactions play a major role in all fields of genetics from regulation and transcription of individual genes to repair of damaged sequences, even to the stabilization of DNA in chromatin and the replication of entire genomes. It is estimated that 2–3% of prokaryotic and 6–7% of eukaryotic genes code for DNA-binding proteins. Additionally, many of these proteins do not merely bind DNA, but also interact with other proteins and sometimes, as is shown in the example of RNA polymerase, only display theirfull activity when organized in multimeric complexes. SEQUENCE-SPECIFIC DNA BINDING Protein recognition of specific sequences on the DNA double
Every inch in our body is composed of proteins, from our hair to our skin, to the muscles as well as to the vital organs. Because every structure in our body is composed of proteins, we need a good supply of protein from our diet. Aside from being serving as the foundation for the structures in our body, proteins also play an important role in regulating our blood pressure, hormonal or enzyme synthesis and immunity. Proteins, such as albumins contribute greatly in maintaining the balance of fluids within our body. Hormones and enzymes are also made up of protein, and even our immune cells are made up of these compounds.
( P4.1,M 2.2) Proteins separation techniques. Proteins are essential components for the physiological functions therefore, separating proteins based on molecular size, charge solubility charge, and affuminity are done. Ex: proteins like drugs,such as insulin, growth hormones, herceptin, imferons, erythropoitin. SDS page: This is a techniques separating protein molecules based on component size or component rates. Native proteins migration in a electric field depend on 3 factors.
(2008) also added that particular mechanisms can alter the expression of gene in the tissue and hence, affect the reliability of the method used. Certain gene could probably be highly expressed in normal tissue, but otherwise in tumor tissue due to certain genetic or epigenetic mechanism (Pike et al., 2008). Gene expression analysis also helps to differentiate expression of certain genes in cancer and non-cancer tissue
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) or phospholipid, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine is a phospholipid activator and mediator of leukocyte functions that has many physiological actions. It was discovered and many studies have been done to characterize its messenger functions as a phospholipid.1 PAF is produced by many different cell types such as leukocytes, platelets, mast cells and vascular endothelial cells. PAF amplifies inflammatory responses by promoting leukocyte activation and platelet aggregation.4 PAF is regulated by an enzyme, PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), which hydrolyzes PAF rendering it biologically inactive.2 It is important to study PAF regulation by researching the enzymes involved in its degradation to understand