1. Introduction Nowadays Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) plays a significant role in many countries around the world. Teaching a language is a complicated process since every language consists of four main skills, including reading, writing, speaking and listening, and some sub-skills, including grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. One essential skill is reading, and it has always been taken into account as one of the most influential skills which is now even more important than before due to the large amount of information in every specific area of study. By knowing the importance of reading, a question may arise: How can teachers improve the language learners’ reading skill?
The Reading fluency includes the ability to recognize words quickly and correctly, therefore; children need to develop automatic word and phrase recognition abilities to enable easy reading. When the process of word recognition takes slight cognitive capacity, the reader can focus on comprehension (Nathan & Stanovich, 1991). In dealing with constituents, with reading fluency Martinez, Roser and Strecker,
Reading fluency revealed general reading competence and the capacity to read related text fluently is one of the essential necessities for effective reading comprehension (Fuchs, Fuchs, Hosp, & Jenkins, 2001; NICHD, 2000). Differences in reading fluency not only separate good readers from poor readers, but an absence of reading fluency is also a dependable predictor of reading comprehension problems (Stanovich,
Reading is a process of constructing meaning. In developing a pedagogy about teaching reading, teachers must be aware of all elements that create a good reader. Teachers can provide the best instruction by delivering a balanced approach to teaching reading. Whilst it is necessary for students to recognise explicit elements of reading such as phonics, students will achieve much more success when also viewing reading from a ‘world view’. Teachers should incorporate a combination of direct instruction and the constructivist approach when teaching reading.
Though, this speed can depend on the amount and quality of exposures to the words (Rasinski, Blachowicz et al. 2012). Fluent students focus their time and attention on comprehension tasks and make connections between the ideas in the text and their background knowledge, whereas non-fluent students spend greatly their time and attention on decoding particular words (LaBerge & Samuels, 1974). The larger collection of sight words a reader has, the more quickly and fluently a student can read material (Burns, Roe at al.
The early reader: develops more confidence and uses a variety of methods, such as relying on visual cues, to identify words in texts adapts his or her reading to different kinds of texts recognizes many words, knows a lot about reading, and is willing to try new texts 4. The fluent reader: thinks of reading as a good thing and does it automatically uses a variety of methods to identify words and their meaning scan read various kinds of texts and predict events in a story relates the meaning of books to his or her own experience and knowledge, and understands what is new It takes time to pass through each of these stages, and your child will need plenty of attention and support as he or she moves through them. You can play a leading role in helping your child acquire the reading skills he or she needs to
The reader's prior knowledge and familiarity with the topic are main factors that determine the level of readability on which reading comprehension depends. As seen from all of these definitions, we can conclude that reading as a process which" involves the recognition of printer or written symbols which serve as stimuli for the recall of meaning built up through manipulation of concepts already possessed by the reader. Besides, it is obvious that, the reader is the one who brings meanings to the text. These meanings are built up through the past experience the reader possessed. Loew (1984),
So, it means that for reading comprehension, it is not only about the ability to read the individual words and know the meaning, but it is about understanding the whole passage as well. Reading comprehension is known to be important because even though it is almost a complex thing as it requires our understanding, but it will be very beneficial especially to be used in peer teaching strategies. Pupils can discuss among themselves the ideas they got based on the passage they read. Besides that, Ylvisaker (2006) has also stated that reading comprehension is seemed to be important for pupils to learn as it has a very close connection with listening comprehension but still reading comprehension skill is much
The way in which a person learns to read in his/her native language is varied. There are several reading strategies that can be used to enhance a student’s desire and ability to read. First, there is guided reading. With this technique the reader can either read aloud or to someone. However, pre-reading is important.
Enjoyment can be the outcome of reading. By reading, they can also gain knowledge of the world that could increase the likelihood of personal enjoyment. In view of that, extensive reading is fundamental to fluent reading. The latter enhances as well as sustains motivation for reading, vocabulary growth, language, literacy skills (e.g., spelling, grammar, and writing), and conceptual-knowledge