Stamicarbon Process: Process operates using an autoclave feed molar ratio of 3:1 of NH3/CO2. Operating pressure is about 138 atm. The carbamate, which is unconverted, is sent to stripper for its decomposition and the ammonia and carbon dioxide obtained thereby are stripped off. One of the salient features of this process is to prevent the corrosion of stainless steel (autoclave material) by introducing a controlled amount of oxygen in the autoclave (reactor). 5.
Each molecule consists of a number of atoms made up of a number of electrons, which moves around the nucleus. So there is a Magnetic movements already existing in their molecules and they therefore already have positive and negative hydrogen charges available. However, these molecules have not been realigned, the fuel is not actively interlocked with hydrogen during combustion, the fuel molecule or hydrocarbon chains must be ionized and realigned. The ionization and realignment is achieved through the application of magnetic field created by fuel energizer. Fuel mainly consists of hydrocarbon and when fuel flows through a magnetic field, such as the one created by the fuel energizer, the hydrocarbon change their orientation and the molecules of hydrocarbon change their configuration.
Biomass is not directly converted to electrical energy but several modes of conversion and extraction apply first before the main product. Here are the modes of conversion: 1. Chemical conversion There are many chemical processes that are used to convert biomass sources of energy to other forms to get electrical energy. The most known method is gastification where pressure is fed into the vessels containing energy from the solid wastes and causes combustion. The products of combustion are mixed combustibles gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen and other methane bonding.
Nuclear energy What is nuclear energy: Nuclear energy is a nuclear power that released by nuclear reaction to generate heat. the energy released. nuclear energy uses fuel made from mined and processed uranium to make steam and generate electricity by two ways. nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. In nuclear fusion, energy is released when atoms are combined or fused together to form a larger atom.
EXPERIMENTAL Mass transfer tests The mass transfer tests in the test reactor (2 L Büchi autoclave) where conducted using an indirect (chemical) method. The experimental procedure (detailed in Section 6.1.3) consisted of filling the reactor with approximately 1.2 mol/L sodium sulfite solution containing 1-5 mg/L cobalt(II) ion, turning on the oxygen supply and starting the time. The oxidation reaction was allowed to continue for a predetermined time agitation was started and samples taken at regular time intervals. Each sample was mixed with excess standard iodine solution and titrated with standard sodium thiosulfate solution (Na2S2O3) using a starch indicator. The reactions are (Jeffrey et al., 1989): 〖"SO" 〗_"3" ^"2-" "+ " "I" _"2" "+
When new reactants enter the PFR it is not diluted with the reaction mixture present in the reactor. The new reactants start to react in a way that can be described as a batch reactor. There is no axial mixing, so in effect the PFR can be described as ideal non-mixing. A batch reactor will just keep on reacting until the reaction mixture is removed and further processed. It is necessary to compare the conversion between a batch reactor and PFR.
This process unit is widely used in industries to convert raw materials into products. There are a lot of factors that affect the design of a chemical reactor depending on the type of chemical reaction that will be taking place such as; the mode of operation this could either be batch or continuous, the type of phases involved homogenous or heterogeneous, and the reactor geometry required. There are many types of reactors and this report will focus on the selection and detailed design of an appropriate chemical reactor suitable for the steam reforming process prior to the direct dimethyl ether
The plastics which are obtained from growth of microorganisms or by plant products/materials are replacing the non degradable plastics. (20) Biodegradation of plastics opens up new strategies for waste management. (3,30) All the newly introduced biodegradable plastics which show degradation in laboratory condition, not efficiently get degraded in landfills. (2) Although the biodegradable plastics have been made, the non degradable plastics which are present on this planet are creating serious issues to the environment. The traditional method of burning the waste can make harm to environment.
A. Petroleum Coke Petroleum coke is a carbonaceous solid delivered from oil refinery coker units or other cracking processes. It is a heavy fuel source produced when oil refiners split crude oil into different commercial products. Like coal, pet coke can be burned to generate power,
2.1 Geothermal as Renewable Energy According to Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). It is the thermal energy contained in the fluids and rocks in the Earth’s crust, calculation show that the earth is originating from a completely molten state, the earth would have cooled and become solid thousand years ago without the thermal heat in addition to support the power of the sun. It is believed that the ultimate source of geothermal energy is radioactive decay occurring deep within the earth. The uses of this kind of energy is influenced by the temperature, the highest temperature of geothermal energy are generally used for electric power generation. The average temperature gradient