Concrete materials are still a dominant material for construction due to its advantages suchas workability, low cost and fire resistance as well as its low maintenance cost. It is formed from a hardened mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and some admixture. Massive exploration of the natural resources for producing concrete affect to the environment condition and global warning. We have responsibility to reduce the effect of the application of concrete materials to environmental impact. The concrete should be used as efficient as possible.
For example, vertical soil or rock surfaces. Glass : tempered glass is the choice recommended in high rise buildings as opposed to plain glass as it can resist various live loads and would not shatter. Some advantages and disadvantages of the type of materials used are: non corrosive, easy in casting (in situ) plasticity. Disadvantages can be, the cost to construct the dead weight, (weight associated with the structure) and the challenge or difficulty which may be encountered when pouring
3.5.2. CONCRETE MANUFACTURE This is a process that describes the making of fresh concrete cubes and testing for compressive strength. The test cubes had a nominal size of 150mm and maximum aggregate size of 20mm. Making test cubes from fresh concrete procedure was in accordance to BS 1881: Part 108: 1983 (cited in Ministry of works, 2000). EQUIPMENT USED • Moulds of cast iron or steel, with removable base plate were prepared.
The energy absorption capacity of hybrid fiber reinforced high strength concrete non –seismic detailing specimens increased with increase in fiber volume fractions. HYBC2.1 specimen - energy absorption capacity was 257.96kN-mm. It was 23.65 percent more than the energy absorption capacity of HSBC1 specimen. The term Ductility  is defined as the ability of structure to undergo large amount of deformations without reduction of its strength. Deflection ductility was calculated by using peak load deflection curves.
By utilizing curves in the development of the building, it exhibits the Romans comprehension of weight appropriation and its significance in building materials. In this way, they utilized lighter materials when moving towards the highest point of the arch (i.e. travertine, tufa, and so on.). This utilization of lighter materials on top eased the gigantic weight of the
Properties of Roller Compacted Concrete with Pozzolan as Cement Replacement Material Introduction: Roller compacted concrete (RCC) gets its name from the heavy vibratory steel drum and rubber-tired rollers used to compact it into its final form. RCC has similar strength properties and consists of the same basic ingredients as conventional concrete_ well graded aggregates, cementitious materials, and water_ but different mixture proportions. The largest difference between RCC mixtures and conventional concrete mixtures is that RCC has a higher percentage of fine aggregates, which allows for tight packing and consolidation . RCC may be considered for applications where no-slump concrete can be transported, placed, and compacted