Then, microwaves located between the radio waves and infrared which also means that the microwaves is overlap with the highest frequency and also known as the shortest wavelength of the radio waves. With the speed of light, microwaves travels in vacuum. Microwaves can be split into three categories, which is three different ranges, from high frequency to low frequency. Firstly,
One type is passive sensors and another type is active sensors. Passive sensors are the sensors that record radiation that is reflected from the Earth. For this reason, the passive radiation can collect data only during the daylight hours. On the other hand, the active sensors can use internal sensors to collect the Earth data. In agricultural sector the remote sensors are very important because the farmers can receive some data concerning their fields.
The major component unique to active systems is the solar collector. This device absorbs the incoming solar radiation, converting it into heat at the absorbing surface, and transfers this heat to a fluid (usually air or water) flowing through the collector. The warmed fluid carries the heat either directly to the hot water or space conditioning equipment or to a storage subsystem from which can be drawn for use at night and on cloudy days. A precise and detailed analysis of a solar flat plate collector is quite complicated because of the many factors involved. Efforts have been made to combine a number of the most important factors into a single equation and thus formulate a mathematical model which will describe the thermal performance of the collector in a computationally efficient manner.
Concentration Ratio: The area concentration ratio is C=Aa/Ar. Let us consider the circular concentrator with aperture area Aa and receiver area Ar viewing the sun of radius r at a distance R as shown. The half angle subtended by the sun is theta-s. If the concentrator is perfect, the radiation from the sun on the aperture (and consequently on receiver) is the fraction of radiation emitted by the sun which is intercepted by the aperture. 2.3.1 SINGLE AXES CONCENTRATOR concentrators with one axis tracking are used to achieve moderate concentration.
Therefore this paper focuses on heat transfer and temperature control of space suits. 1 Introduction Space suit is something beyond general costumes; according to NASA it is much closer to a small spacecraft than a cloth. It serves as an artificial environment for the astronaut while providing him safety from foreign objects such as space dust. Spacesuit has important capabilities such as communication, pressure controlling, Oxygen level controlling, defending the astronauts against space dust, containing water for the astronaut, protecting eye sight from the bright sun light, etc. (May, 2015) Among those abilities, controlling internal temperature is a major function of a space suit.
(Aviation maintenance technical handbook-Airframe volume 2, By the US Department of transportation/ Federal aviation authority) Antenna There are two main types of antenna Parabolic and Flat plate. The older antenna used is the Parabolic antenna. The radio frequency power used by this system is 65kW and it is supplied via wave guide and feeder to a parabolic reflector where a narrow beam is directed into the space. The spoiler deflects the radio waves to the ground for ground mapping. Higher powers are associated with this antenna
First they pass through a magnetic field that selects atoms of the right energy state; then they pass through an intense microwave field. The frequency of the microwave energy sweeps backward and forward within a narrow range of frequencies, so that at some point in each cycle it crosses the frequency of exactly 9192631770 Hertz (Hz, or cycles per second). The range of the microwave generator is already close to this exact frequency, as it comes from an accurate crystal oscillator. When a cesium atom receives microwave energy at
By Caolan Griffin Optical and non-optical telescopes are essential tools for the advancement of human research. Optical telescopes gathers and focuses light to create a magnified image or photograph, where as non-optical telescopes sense other things on the radio spectrum such as radio waves, gamma waves and X rays. Without non optical telescopes advancement’s in many areas such as medicine, television and radios would be impossible. Within the non-optical telescope branch there are many different telescopes each specified to view different frequencies. A type of non-optical telescope which is used very regularly is a Radio telescope.
The more incoming solar radiation an area experiences the more warmer that area is. Therefore we can say that the earth’s heat imbalance is caused by the earth’s tilted axis and how it orbits the sun thus we experience different seasons Our main source of heat for Earth is the sun. Transfer of energy from the sun travels trough space, then through the Earth’s atmosphere and to the surface of the Earth. Some of this energy becomes heat energy. There are three ways this energy can be transferred, Radiation, Convection and Conduction.
1.2 Terahertz Gap: The gap between electronic band and photonic band is called as Terahertz gap.  Fig 2: Terahertz Gap  The terahertz portion of the EM spectrum lies between microwaves and the infrared. Typically it is extended from about 0.3 THz (a wavelength of 1 mm ) to around 10 THz ( a wavelength of 30 µm). There is several fast growing interests in this spectral region . 1) THz waves can penetrate a wide variety of non-conducting materials.